Exodus 34:12 "Take heed to yourself, that you make no covenant, with the inhabitants of the land, where you are going, or they will be a snare in your midst."


Should the House of Yahweh be a chartered corporation? The House of Yahweh is not a building, or a dead corporate body. It is a living body, a body of believers!


The word Corporate means: to make into a body. From Corpus: a dead body.


I Corinthians 3:16, 17  "16- Do you not understand that you are the House of Yahweh and that the Spirit of Yahweh dwells in you?  17- If anyone defiles the House of Yahweh, Yahweh will destroy him. For the House of Yahweh is holy, which you are."


II Corinthians 3:16, 17  "16- However, when one turns to Yahweh, the veil is taken away.

17- Now Yahweh is the Spirit; and where the Spirit of Yahweh is, there is liberty!"


I Timothy 3:15  "But if I am delayed, I write so that you may know the right and proper way to conduct yourself in the House of Yahweh, who are the called out ones of the LIVING FATHER, the pillar and ground of the truth."


Attached at is a copy of one such charter granted by the State to The House of Yahweh, corporate church, a 501c3 organization. If you notice the language, you will see a difference between both organizations, one being a church and the other a synagogue. However, both have received permission or authority to do business by the State, not realizing that Yahweh has already granted authority to exist and do business. They have become servants to whom they obey. If they don't obey the State, they can be penalized by the State. It is a tough decision, but it is one that all Houses of Yahweh must consider. Yahweh's law forbids making treaties/covenants with the godworshiping nations.


Exodus 34:12 "Take heed to yourself, that you make no covenant, with the inhabitants of the land, where you are going, or they will be a snare in your midst."


KJV “Take heed 8104 to thyself, lest thou make 3772 a covenant 1285 with the inhabitants 3427 of the land 776 whither thou goest 935 , lest it be for a snare 4170 in the midst 7130 of thee:”


The following words are defined from Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary and Gesenius Hebrew Lexicon.


The word heed is #2414 and means: to keep guard, watch over, to be on one’s guard, to abstain, refrain.

The word make is #3772 and means: to cut off, to make a covenant, to destroy (such as to be cut off from Yahweh.)

The word covenant is the Hebrew word beriyth, in Strong's Hebrew Concordance it is #1285 which means: a treaty, alliance, between men an agreement; a constitution or ordinance.

The word inhabitants is word #3427 and means: to sit down, to sit down with anyone, to marry, judges and kings sitting on their thrones.

The word land is #776 and means: inhabitants of the earth, people of the land, country or territory.

The word goest is #935 and means: to come in, enter, to enter into, to have intercourse with.

The word snare is #4170 and means: bait, lure, a snare, from #3369--to set a trap, to be ensnared. The word ensnare means: to trap or gain power over someone by dishonest or underhand means.

The word midst is #7130 and means: in the middle, a seat of thought and emotion, as faculty of thought and emotion. From #7126 which means: to come near, approach, to draw near.


So we can see from the Hebrew meanings, Yahweh warns the House of Yahweh; “To guard, refrain from making a covenant, which will cut one off from Yahweh, by treaty, alliance between men who sit in their kingdoms and govern their country, sitting with them through contract or marriage, entering into treaty or intercourse with them, will be a snare, they will gain power over you and your thoughts by controlling you through deceptive practices.” As we will see in this study incorporation is such control as the Hebrew words describe in this Law of Yahweh.




In Webster's Dictionary the word covenant means: a usually formal, solemn, or binding agreement; a written agreement or promise usually under seal between two or more parties, especially for the performance of some action.


The word corporation means: a group of merchants or traders united in a trade guild; A legal entity that is separate and distinct from its owners. Corporations enjoy most of the rights and responsibilities that an individual possesses that is, a corporation has the right to enter into contracts, loan and borrow money, sue and be sued, hire employees, own assets and pay taxes. The most important aspect of a corporation is limited liability. That is, shareholders have the right to participate in the profits, through dividends and/or the appreciation of stock, but are not held personally liable for the company's debts.


In most Law Dictionaries the word corporation means: an organization formed with state governmental approval to act; A fictitious legal entity/person which has rights and duties independent of the rights and duties of real persons and which is legally authorized to act in its own name through duly appointed agents. It is owned by shareholders. Usually created under the authority of state law.


We can see by this definition that a corporation is a fictitious entity, and it is created under the authority of state law. The true House of Yahweh is not fiction, nor does it need authority by the state to exist. It’s existence is from Yahweh and it’s creation if from Yahweh. For Yahweh is the creator of all things, both heaven and earth and the things that are in them. Reading further we find the definition of the word treaty.


The word treaty means: 1 : the action of treating and especially of negotiating. 2 a : an agreement or arrangement made by negotiation: (1) : private treaty (2) : a contract in writing between two or more political authorities (as states or sovereigns) formally signed by representatives duly authorized and usually ratified by the lawmaking authority of the state b : a document in which such a contract is set down.


The word contract means: 1 a : a binding agreement between two or more persons or parties; especially : one legally enforceable. b : a business arrangement for the supply of goods or services at a fixed price <make parts on contract> c : the act of marriage or an agreement to marry. 2 : a document describing the terms of a contract.


From these definitions we can see that entering into a corporation binds the organization into a marriage, a binding agreement, or a trade guild. Both parties are subject to the authority that gave them the permission to do business, in the case of a corporation it would be the State or Federal government. Now I am not saying that it is wrong to enter into business agreements, because there is nothing wrong with doing business with anyone as long as you keep the Laws of Yahweh in your agreements. But concerning a corporation, you are entering a contract, whereas the parties are subject to the authorities who regulate the contract. In the case of a corporation, the state is giving the chuch permission to do business in the name of the corporation. The church would be subject to following the states codes. If not then the state can dissolve the corporation and the corporation could be liable against law suits. A corporation is created by statutuary law, whereas the House of Yahweh is created by the creator, who is not bound to the flesh and statutes of man. The House of Yahweh is more of an ecclesiastical pure trust.


The definition of the word Trust in Bouvier’s Law Dictionary 1856 edition has the meaning of: An equitable right, title or interest in property, real or personal, distinct from its legal ownership; or it is a personal obligation for paying, delivering or performing anything, where the person trusting has no real, right or security, for by, that act he confides altogether to the faithfulness of those entrusted. This is its most general meaning, and includes deposits, bailments, and the like. In its more technical sense, it may be defined to be an obligation upon a person, arising out of a confidence reposed in him, to apply property faithfully, and according to such confidence.


It is Yahweh who we have confidence in. It is He that we are obligated to. He created a pure trust agreement with our Father Abraham thousands of years ago, that was not bound to human laws, or codes. It was an everlasting trust that He created and as the creator only He has the authority to abolish it, govern it, and control it’s business. The House of Yahweh is a living trust made up of living beings, who are part of a body of believers, that do the work or business of Yahweh. This trust does not die upon the managers death, but instead is carried on to other managers. Yahweh's people should consider carefully Yahweh's Law when doing anything concerning business and the use of Yahweh’s name.


Deuteronomy 15:5 "Only if you carefully listen to the voice of Yahweh your mighty one, and are careful to observe and do all these commandments I command you this day."


When one studies the constitution of Yahweh’s laws, which was established from the beginnning, they can see that the Laws of Yahweh are living Laws, for living beings, meant to bring life to those who live by them.


Deuteronomy 30:15 “See I have set before you life and righteousness, death and destruction. For I command you today to love Yahweh your Father, to walk in all His ways, and to keep His commandments, His statutes, and His judgments, so you may live and multiply, and so Yahweh your Father may bless you in the land you go in to possess.”


Yahweh is the Sovereign King over all of His creation. There is no need to get permission or to enter into Treaty with any human created government entity in order to do Yahweh’s business. The people of Yahweh are not bound to such agreements. For in doing so, they become in bondage to those who take a right and turn it into a privilege. Such rights, as doing the work of Yahweh has already been sanctified and granted by Yahweh, therefore it is not necessary to be granted a privilege from the state, or man in order to do the rights granted by Yahweh. It is the body of believers right to form a union in order to do the work of Yahweh. Yahweh gave such permission long ago to our forefather Abraham.


Genesis 17:7I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between Me and you and your descendants after you, for all generations to come, to be your Father and the Father of your descendants after you.”


Here we see a covenant promise made by Yahweh to Abraham. This is an irrevocable trust made by Yahweh to Abraham and his descendants. Irrevocable means: That which cannot be revoked;

REVOCATION. The act by which a person having authority, calls back or annuls a power, gift, or benefit, which had been bestowed upon another. For example, a testator may revoke his testament; a constituent may revoke his letter of attorney; a grantor may revoke a grant made by him, when he has reserved the power in the deed.


Yahweh can revoke his promise, if he so chose to do. But Yahweh then how could we trust Yahweh? The Promise would be null and void!


The definition of living trust in most Law Dictionaries is defined as: A trust created during the maker's lifetime that does not allow the maker to change it.


Yahweh made the covenant promise with Abraham, and most assuredly he will not change it. Our creators lifetime is infinite. Yahweh has no beginning nor end. At least the scriptures don’t give us enough detail only to tell us that the secret things belong to Yahweh.


Malakyah 3:6For I am Yahweh, I change not; therefore you sons of Yaaqob are not consumed.”


Deuteronomy 29:29 “The secret things belong to Yahweh our Father, but the things revealed to us, belongs to us and to our children forever, so that we may perform and do all the words of this law.”




In the inspired scriptures we see where Kings had made treaties with other nations and because of their disregard to the Law of Yahweh, it brought curses to them and their Kingdom. King Solomon who is mentioned as one of the wisest Kings in Israyl, disregarded the Law of Yahweh concerning making treaties with the godworshiping nations. In I Kings 3:1 a treaty made with the marriage of Pharaoh’s daughter to the King, and because of this treaty, Solomon fell into Godworship by sacrificing on the high places to the Gods of Egypt.


I Kings 3:1-3 “Solomon made a coalition pact with Pharoah king of Egypt, and married the daughter of Pharoah. he brought her to the City of David until he finished building his own house, the House of Yahweh, and the wall all around Yerusalem. However, the people were sacrificing on the high places, because there was no House built for the Name of Yahweh until those days. Solomon showed his love for Yahweh by walking in the statutes of David his father, with the exception that he sacrificed and burned incense on the high places.”


In the KJV the word that is translated above coalition pact is the word affinity which in Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary is word #781 and means: to give one’s daughter in marriage.


In the ancient days it was customary for King’s to take the daughters in marriage in order to secure a treaty and have peace among the nation that they were living next to, or to bring peace between the countries. One of the sadder aspects of dynastic politics has always been the marrying off of princesses to foreign rulers in order to cement a bond between two royal houses. As young girls they were sent abroad with a small entourage to a strange country, where people spoke a language they did not understand, ate funny tasting food, worshipped incomprehensible gods and where they generally disappeared among a host of wives. The chances of their ever seeing their families again were slim; and contact with their loved ones was often restricted to a few letters and presents.


Here is some examples:


Tushratta, was a king of Mitanni at the end of the reign of Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten -- approximately the late 14th century BC. He was the son of Shuttarna II. His sister Gilukhipa and his daughter Tadukhipa was married to the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III; Tadukhipa later married Akhenaten who took over his father's royal harem. always mentioned his sister and later his daughter, both married to the pharaoh, in his letters; but he was probably at least as much concerned about the political alliance the marriage was supposed to strengthen as about the girls' well-being.


Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar, the ruler who founded the Mughal dynasty in India in 1605. During the early years of his reign, he had an intolerant attitude towards Hindus and the other religions, but he exercised great tolerance after he began marriage alliances with Rajput princesses.


King Felipe II of Spain (1527–1598) was the second king of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty. As king, it was his job not only to rule his vast realm but also to sire an heir to continue the royal dynasty. His four marriages, however, were not only in pursuit of an heir, but also forged and strengthened international alliances that were beneficial to Spain. His marriages to Maria of Portugal and Archduchess Anna of Austria gave him sons and strengthened ties with the Portuguese Aviz and Austrian Habsburg royal families. His marriages with Mary Tudor (Queen Mary I of England) and Elizabeth of Valois forged needed alliances with England and France.

Felipe of Spain married his cousin Maria of Portugal in 1543. She was the daughter of his aunt Catherine and King John III of Portugal. His father, King Carlos I of Spain, had arranged the marriage in order to strengthen the Spanish alliance with Portugal and also in the hopes of one day getting a sole heir to Spain and Portugal, thus unifying the Iberian Peninsula under one monarch.

These treaties, secured through marriage, were designed to strengthen alliances between nations. Is it no wonder why Yahweh would condemn such practices. For He knew that the Hebrew people through these covenant treaties would subject themselves through marriage to the Godworshiping women of this world. As it is written: “How can two walk together unless they agree.” The treaties that were made between Kings involved provisions that the scriptures don’t go into detail about. Solomon’s love for women, foreign women, caused him to break the Laws of Yahweh. We can see the consequences of these treaties.


I Kings 11:1 “However, King Solomon loved many other foreign women, besides the daughter of Pharoah: women from the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Phoenicians, and Hittites--From the very nations Yahweh had commanded the children of Israyl: You must not marry them and they must not marry you, because they will turn away your heart after their gods! To these, Solomon clung in love.”


Through Treaty or Covenant with the nations around them, King Solomon was drawn into godworship through the marriage of these pagan wives. Could he have secured peace and forged an alliance some other way, we will never know because the scriptures don’t show that he did. Today, the House of Yahweh is faced with the same choice. Should we make a treaty with the government to secure rights and privileges that are already endowed to us by the great architect of the universe, Yahweh? And if we do so, what is the consequences of such actions?


Let us examine further into the corporate state church.


  1. According to man, The State is Sovereign over its Corporations "A corporation is a creature of the state. It is presumed to be incorporated for the benefit of the public. It receives certain special privileges and franchises and holds them subject to the laws of the state and the limitation of its charter. Its powers are limited by law. It can make no contract not authorized by its charter. Its rights to act as a corporation are only preserved to it so long as it obeys the laws of its creation. There is a reserved right in the legislature to investigate its contracts and ascertain if it has exceeded its powers" (Hale v. Henkel, 201 U.S. 43)
  1. "A corporation derives its existence and all of its powers from the State and, therefore, has only such powers as the State has conferred upon it. Power is used here to mean the legal capacity to execute and fulfill the objects and purposes for which the corporation was created, and the source of this power is the charter and the statute under which the corporation was organized." Len Young Smith and G. Gale Roberson, Smith and Roberson's Business Law, West Publishing Company, 1966, page 796.
  2. A corporation derives its existence and all of its power from the State. The church on the other hand was created by and is the body of Messiah. We belong to Him and we are subject to Him and His Laws. The source of any church's power is supposed to be the Holy Spirit; it's authority to function solely from Yahweh.
  3. Every corporation has obtained a charter from the State of Incorporation. This charter is simply permission to exist given to the corporation (by the State!) without which, its operations would be considered illegal. In addition to the charter are the articles of incorporation: "The objects or purposes for which a corporation is formed are expressly stated in its articles of incorporation, which delineate in general language the type of business activities in which the corporation proposes to engage" Smith and Roberson's Business Law, West Publishing Company, 1966, page 798.


Here is some points to consider of why the House of Yahweh should not incorporate:


  1. Here in the United States of America a church does not have to incorporate at all to be recognized as a local body of believers.
  2. According to the Internal Revenue Code, "a church, its integrated auxiliaries, and conventions and associations of the church are excluded from taxation." United States Code, Title 26, 508(c)(1)(A).
  3. Section 508(c) of the Internal Revenue Code provides that churches are not required to apply for recognition of Section 501(c)(3) status in order to be exempt from federal taxation or to receive tax deductible contributions. Churches are automatically exempt from Federal income tax, and contributions to churches are deductible by donors under section 170.
  4. The government has no constitutional authority over the Church. It is not allowed to violate the First Amendment protection that the constitution provides. In fact the government may not infringe on any of our constitutional rights at all. They have found a way around this of course. To hold out an unbiblical advantage hoping an ignorant clergy person will take the bait and bring the church into voluntary compliance by forming a 501( C )(3) corporation, thus placing the church under the authority of the state.
  5. Once the church has been transformed into a corporation it then becomes subject to control by federal and state governments. In truth an incorporated church is no longer a church!! but merely a non-profit organization. Once a church incorporates the new non-profit organization is subject to total control by the government. You will be controlled on who you hire, what you can and cannot preach. You cannot conflict with public policy nor assault the hearer's sense of mental well being, self-esteem, sexual orientation etc. You can be sued. The IRS prohibits such organizations from "carrying on propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation" (26 USC 501-C-3). This prohibition extends, not only to the endorsement of a political candidate, but also any other attempts to "influence legislation," including taking a public stand against such government-protected abominations, such as abortion or homosexuality. Now, the church is discovering that favors from Washington, DC have strings attached. In this case, the string is a rope that is being used to throttle her once-powerful voice, to squeeze out her very life and, eventually, to hang her by the neck until dead!
  6. Most people don't know this, but by signing IRS form 501c3 (tax exempt status) the CHURCH in America has agreed (in very plain and clear terms) to NOT criticize the Almighty government, politicians, or anything political, ever, under any circumstances... The First Amendment right to free speech, amazingly, is voluntarily forfeited by the "Amerikan" church the moment they sign on the dotted line.
  7. Churches applying for 501 status agree they will maintain their internal practices in accordance with government wishes... These churches are not private churches. They are public corporations subject to every whim and fancy of the government, like Microsoft... "Churches are simply applying for something they do not need and should not have, usually out of ignorance... A true church does not subject itself to government, or seek public benefits. It especially does not do so to get more money from it's members.


From the information presented above we learn that:


  1. A corporation is “a creature of the State.”                                                         
  2. The State is "sovereign" over the corporation.                                                 
  3. The corporation is “incorporated for the benefit of the public.”                                
  4. A corporation is a State “franchise.”                                                                
  5. Incorporation is a State “privilege.”                                                                 
  6. A corporation is “subject to the laws of the State.”                                                
  7. “Its powers are limited by law.”                                                                
  8. It must “obey the laws of its creation.”                                                        
  9. A corporation has no constitutionally-protected rights.                                                

Reading further about the history of corporations we find that corporations are not new or novel legal principles that the Supreme Court just discovered in 1906. Rather, these are legal principles that date back many centuries. The corporation is a product of ancient Rome. The corporation, as the legal entity we are familiar with today, dates back to at least 250 B.C.


By 6 A.D. and the codification of Corpus Juris Civilis (the first great codification of Roman civil law) all "spontaneous collectivities of persons" were required to incorporate. The early church was persecuted over their refusal to incorporate. Had they incorporated they could have avoided much of the persecution they otherwise suffered at the hands of the Romans.


Rome persecuted the Christians not for Who they worshipped. Rome had hundreds of deities, and they could care less who or what you worshipped, as long as you were "licit" (licensed). The church was persecuted not because they worshipped Jesus Christ, but because of the manner in which they functioned -- an ecclesia. The church was declared to be "illicit," and held in a state of "civil disobedience," because of their refusal to incorporate. Why did the church refuse incorporation? Largely because they knew that it would destroy their testimony that Yahshua Messiah is our Saviour and Yahweh is our Sovereign King.


Under Roman civil law, "Caesar is sovereign over the corporation," and "the corporation is a creature of the State." The early church willingly suffered for its refusal to accept "State privileges and benefits."


III Yahchanan 1:7 “Because they went forth for his name’s sake, taking nothing of the Gentiles.”                                                                                                                

Corporations have been known and widely used for many centuries in virtually every corner of the earth. However, the corporation was not at all widely known in America during the colonial era, and for many decades after our independency. Indeed, the corporation was an entity viewed with great suspicion, if not trepidation. For many years it was extremely difficult and expensive to incorporate and, therefore, it was rather difficult to identify corporations of any kind, especially incorporated churches.


Today, all that is necessary to incorporate is that you fill out the necessary forms and file them with your Secretary Of State's office; but that wasn't always the case. It used to be that if you wanted to incorporate you would have to petition your state legislature for a corporate charter, and they weren't in the habit of handing those out to just anyone who wanted one. In order to be issued a corporate charter, you had to prove to a majority of your state legislators that you simply couldn't operate any other way. As a result, the vast majority of businesses operated as sole proprietorships and general partnerships.


Those who have ever had to petition their state legislature for anything know that it is a time-consuming process, and often leads to frustration, if not failure. For any church to request a corporate charter would surely be met by failure (at least after ratification of the Constitution and the First Amendment), since the states viewed the incorporation of any church as a government "establishment of religion." Some state legislatures, such as Virginia and West Virginia, went so far as to amend their state constitutions to "forever prohibit the incorporation of any church."


In Caesar's Grip, page 66, by Peter Kershaw we find the following information:


In 1811 Congress ratified a bill, to incorporate the Protestant Episcopal Church in Alexandria, Virginia. When the bill was presented for President James Madison’s signature, he promptly vetoed it. He furnished a list of his objections, in a veto message, which in part included:

"Because the bill exceeds the rightful authority to which governments are limited by the essential distinction between civil and religious functions, and violates in particular the article of the Constitution of the United States which declares that ‘Congress shall make no law respecting a religious establishment.’ The bill enacts into and establishes by law sundry rules and proceedings relative purely to the organization and polity of the church incorporated… This particular church, therefore, would so far be a religious establishment by law, a legal force and sanction being given to certain articles in its constitution and administration."


James Madison had no difficulty with grasping the fact that the bill was wholly unconstitutional, although the majority in Congress evidently did not. With the Episcopal Church having already declared its intentions, the Virginia state legislature prevented any church from ever incorporating by amending their Constitution to preclude their doing so. To this very day, it is unlawful to incorporate a church in Virginia.


Of Madison's historic veto, constitutional law professor John Eidsmoe states in his book, Christianity and the Constitution: His reason was that incorporation was a form of licensing by which government gave churches permission to operate. Therefore, incorporation was superfluous; government has no jurisdictional authority to tell churches they can or cannot operate.                                                         


Madison's veto set an historic precedent that was seldom departed from, at least up until the turn of the twentieth-century. In 1898, New Jersey became the first state to "liberalizate" their incorporation laws. The New Jersey state legislature delegated its powers to incorporate to the New Jersey Secretary Of State. Rather than issuing corporate charters, the Secretary Of State issued "articles of incorporation." All the former impediments to obtaining corporate status were done away with. In order to "compete" with New Jersey, other states quickly followed suit and liberalized their incorporation laws, as well. Soon the mainline church denominations, no longer hindered by state legislators, incorporated. Andrew Carnegie, a wealthy industrialist who sat on the board of directors for the largest Presbyterian denomination (PCUSA), was first to encourage his denomination to incorporate. Carnegie did so not because of all the reasons we hear today. Not once did he ever even mention limited liability protection. Rather, Carnegie spoke highly of the corporation, based upon its alleged "efficiencies."


Other industrialist tycoons, such as Cleveland Dodge and John Wanamaker, who sat on the boards of other mainline denominations, also encouraged their denominations to incorporate, based upon their theories of "improved efficiency." This was the industrial age and industrialists had rapidly become "corporate men." In their worldview, the church too must become "modernized," and incorporation was a necessary element of modernization. Eventually, many local churches, encouraged by the example of their denominations, also incorporated. By the mid-twentieth century, incorporation of the church had become the status quo.


Madison's veto of 1811, and his reasons for that veto have, by and large, been abandoned, if not completely forgotten. Of even greater concern is the fact that today's church has, with few exceptions, abandoned the beliefs of the early church fathers who refused to incorporate, and suffered Rome's persecution, as a direct result. Incorporation was mandatory for all "spontaneous collectivities of persons" throughout Rome. Yet they refused Caesar's "privilege."


In America, incorporation is completely voluntary. Furthermore, as we've already mentioned, it used to be almost impossible to incorporate a church, based upon the fact that no church can be free and independent of that government that incorporates it. Yet churches today incorporate routinely, a decision which they make with about as much care and consideration as what brand of tissue paper to use in their lavatories; this in spite of the fact that there are huge legal and theological ramifications to any church seeking incorporation.




Limited Liability Protection? Limited liability protection is generally first among the legal “benefits” used by attorneys to convince a church to incorporate. However, limited liability protection is, for a number of reasons, largely a phantasm promulgated by (you guessed it) the legal profession, and fails to take into account significant trends in tort law in recent years. The American Bar Association has hosted “Tort & Religion” conferences since at least 1989 in which they instruct attorneys in the finer points of how to target incorporated “religious organizations” and “pierce the corporate veil.”

Incorporation does little if anything in the way of actually protecting the church. The legal reality is that a church cannot be sued and brought into court until it incorporates. A church “is not an entity recognized in law.” If the court cannot legally recognize it, it cannot be sued. A church is not subject to the jurisdiction of any court. However, should a church incorporate it most certainly may be sued. Incorporation becomes the nexus of government jurisdiction to the incorporated church. One of the legal attributes that seldom if ever is discussed by the attorney is: A corporation may sue and be sued. How they can sell that as a “benefit” is hard to comprehend.

The Fox Guarding the Henhouse

One thing attorneys will never discuss is just who offers the “protection” to the corporation. The answer is the State. Is this wise or prudent? Even decades ago when the State was openly cordial to the church it would be hard to argue from Scripture that the church should seek its “protection” from the State. But in post-Christian America when the State has grown openly antagonistic toward biblical believers, is it smart to seek State “protection”? That would be like asking the fox to guard the henhouse (or in biblical vernacular, the wolf protecting the sheep.)




There are numerous problems associated with a church organizing as a corporation. Attorneys will enthusiastically market the alleged “benefits,” but nary a word is mentioned about all the pitfalls of incorporation. Not only are there legal pitfalls, but there are significant theological ones, as well.


A Creature Of the State. Two of the most serious of all problems for the church that incorporates is the legal fact that:                                                                         


  1. The corporation is a “creature of the State.”                                                         
  1. The State is “sovereign over the corporation.”                                                                 

These are legal maxims that originated in ancient pagan Rome, and they survive as governing legal dictum to this very day. The corporation that we know today, with all of its legal attributes, was perfected by the Romans at least 250 years prior to the birth of Christ Jesus. Those who have studied Roman culture will appreciate how every element of society, including its legal system, was imbued by their pagan worldview. There were no personal liberties in the Roman empire, only State-sanctioned privileges and benefits. The State was sovereign (the supreme authority) in all matters and nothing could be done absent the State’s license. Incorporation became mandatory by 6 A.D. for all “spontaneous collectivities of persons.” The church was not persecuted by Rome because of who they worshipped (there were hundreds of deities that Rome permitted to be worshipped). Persecution began because of the manner in which they worshipped. The church was held to be “illicit” because they refused to seek the permission of the State through incorporation.


Why would the early Believers suffer the wrath of Rome rather than incorporate? The answer is both legal and, necessarily, theological. For the church to incorporate would have been a public proclamation that Caesar was sovereign (the supreme authority) over Yahshua Messiah, the Head of the church. Those Believers would have considered such a thing blasphemy!


Secondly, they well knew that the church is the body of Messiah -- corpus Christi -- not the corpus of the State (the word “corporation” comes from the Latin “corpus” or “body”). The early church had far more regard for the consistency of their testimony than many churches do today. We should try to learn something from their example. It is because of that testimony that they at no time sought the privileges and benefits of the Roman State:


III Yahchanan 1:7 “Because that for his name’s sake they went forth, taking nothing of the Gentiles.”                                                                         


The early church existed to testify to the world the authority and leadership of its Head and Founder, the Man, Yahshua Messiah -- an everlasting message. The local church, though persecuted, was free and unconstrained to impact the culture of the Roman Empire, not become subordinate to its pagan rulers. Incorporated churches in America today, however, are constrained by the dictates of the State by virtue of the myriad of laws which apply to non-profit corporations.


This little light of mine, I'm gonna let it shine


Let’s now follow one of the more typical scenarios in how the pastor (and often the elders, and deacons) are convinced to incorporate the local church. Sunday morning the pastor gives a stirring sermon on the passage from John 3:3, “Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.” He closes with an altar call and proclaims, “Friends, Jesus is not only the Savior merely of men’s souls, He is the Savior, the Lord, the Sovereign of every area of our lives, Jesus wants to not only save your soul from eternal damnation, His will is to govern every area of your life. Jesus is the Provider. Jesus is the great Protector.” And many a soul is saved that day. They are convinced the Pastor really believes what he says.


With Monday morning into the church comes an attorney who informs the Pastor, “Reverend, in combing through the Secretary Of State’s records, I noticed that your church is not incorported. Don’t you know that most churches are incorporated? Pastor, you’re flirting with danger. Didn’t you hear about the church just down the road here that got sued because some grandmother walked in and fell over a rumple in the carpet and broke her hip. She got a judgement not only against the church, but because the church wasn’t incorporated she was able to attach the personal assets of the pastor, elders, deacons, and any of the members of the church with deep pockets.”


What the attorney just presented to the Pastor is a lie (just ask that attorney to give you a citation for the case of granny and her broken hip, and you’ll never see him again), but lies rooted in fear often sell, and the attorney well knows this. He’s not concerned for the truth, just for roping in another paying client. The law profession is far more competitive than most people realize. There are over one-million attorneys in America (that’s more than the entire attorney population of the rest of the world combined). There are too many attorneys chasing too little legitimate legal work, so many of them have to create work for themselves -- to create a perception of a need where no legitimate need exists.


Just what kind of a testimony is it to the world when the church incorporates, and particularly when we do so out of a spirit of fear? Sadly, the issue of our testimony is seldom ever considered when making that monumental decision. But it is one that many others will ponder when they are presented with the gospel message. “Let’s see, the Pastor just said that Jesus not only saves my soul, but He will be my Savior in every area of my life. He’s my Provider. He’s my Protector. If he’s such a great Protector, why then did this church think they needed to go to the State and get its limited liability protection by incorporating? Obviously the church must not think very much of Yahweh’s ability to protect them.”




A great many of the believers problems today are a direct result of the church "taking" and actively pursuing a legal status that makes it inferior to, and a subordinate of, the civil government. The two most significant ways this occurs is by incorporation (state jurisdiction) and the tax-exempt 501c3 status (federal jurisdiction).


Scripture simply does not support the notion that the church is an inferior institution to the State. Nor, for that matter, is the House of Yahweh a superior institution to the State. Yahweh has ordained both the church and the civil government as His "ministers." The church is the minister of the Law of Yahweh, while the State is the minister of justice among civil people. Church and State are two distinct and independent spheres of authority (jurisdictions) ordained by Yahweh. Of course the State we speak of should be a body politic formed with the Laws of Yahweh as it’s constitution. That does not mean however, that we are to rebel against govenment, as long as they do not pass laws that oppose Yahweh.


However, no church can remain separate and distinct from the civil government when it incorporates and/or accepts 501c3 status. For legal purposes an incorporated 501c3 church has subordinated itself, by contract, to the civil government. For theological purposes, that church has made a covenant with the State, a covenant which Scripture in no way supports.


Exodus 34:12 "Take heed to yourself, that you make no covenant, with the inhabitants of the land, where you are going, or they will be a snare in your midst."


What is the solution to the church's current messy state of affairs? It must cease operating as an underling of the State. The solution is for the church to legally operate as it once had in America (and we might add, quite successfully so). Rather than operating as "tax-exempt nonprofit religious corporations," churches once functioned as "free-churches." Just what exactly is a free-church? A free-church operates independent of, and is in no way subordinate to, the civil government. It is the right of any church to operate free of the corrupting and compromising influence and control of the State; and it is a right guaranteed by the Constitution:


Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof…                                                                 


A free-church is not some radical-fringe concept. Rather, the free-church was one of the most influential, and certainly one of the most common, institutions in early American history. The worldview of those men who fought for America's independence embraced an uncompromising belief that the church was not an underling, a vassal, or in any way subordinate to any king, parliament, or any other civil government body. The House of Yahweh is the religious institution ordained and established by Yahweh Himself, and Yahshua Messiah never delegated His authority to the civil jurisdiction to rule in the affairs of the House of Yahweh.


A free-church is the opposite of a State-Church. The Church Of England is a State-Church system. State-Churches are well known throughout Europe, and there have been State-Churches there for many centuries. Europeans not only have a very low regard for their State-Churches and government-licensed clergy, they often hold them in open contempt, and this is reflected statistically by what is the lowest church attendance in the world. Rather than being quick to criticize the Europeans for not attending church, we should ponder whether their contempt for the State-Church system isn't well deserved. If you're ever inclined to have a church experience that is cold, empty, meaningless and downright depressing, just attend the average European church service (it's little wonder there are so many agnostics and atheists there).


A State-Church is a church which is organized by the State, and/or is controlled and regulated by the State, or which exists at the pleasure of the State. Christians in Europe have, for a number of generations, grown up surrounded by nothing but State-Churches. As such, they are generally not offended by the notion that the State controls their church (they just don't bother to show up unless it's Christmas). It's simply a way of life for them which they generally do not question. Americans, on the other hand, are generally offended by the notion of the State creating or controlling their churches, or that their churches would be subordinate to the State. However, this is exactly what has occurred in recent years as a direct result of churches incorporating and seeking a 501c3 status -- they have become State-Churches.


A free-church is a church that is truly separate, independent and autonomous from the State. It is established by a local body of believers, or chartered or "planted" by another church body or denomination, without the permission or sanction of the State. The only "sovereign" of the free-church is Yahweh. A free-church cannot incorporate, it cannot seek a 501c3 status, it cannot become a tax collector for the State (withholding agent), it cannot accept government-issued tax numbers (EIN).


The term "free-church" was widely used by the American colonists. It was not a term that they coined, but one which they inherited from their fathers and forebears such as the Scottish Covenanters, and the "non-conformist" English clergy, both of whom fled the persecutions of the Anglican State-Church and it's "sovereign head" the British monarchy. Even after American independence there continued to be Christians who fled the religious persecution of their State-Church systems for the freedom of religion America offered them. They too often used the term "free-church" to describe the churches they organized. Such an example of this would be the Evangelical Free Church, which was founded by a group of Scandinavians who settled in America in the mid-nineteenth century. Tragically, the Evangelical Free Church In America today has become a "Free Church" in name only. By incorporating and becoming a 501c3 they, some years ago, decided to abandon those principles that their Swedish, Danish and Norwegian forefathers endured great persecution for.


Equally tragic is the demise of the so-called "Free-Church of Scotland." Were they honest it would be renamed the "State-Church of Scotland." So thoroughly has it become a State-Church that Scottish pastors receive their paychecks from the government (and it happened because the Scottish clergy insisted upon it). He who pays the piper calls the tune.


The church must cease operating as an underling, subordinate to the State, or in any way dependent upon the State for "privileges and benefits." The solution rests in the church organizing and operating as a church -- the ecclesia, not as something other than what Yahweh ordained and specified. Yahshua spoke of the House of Yahweh as a “body” with Himself as the “head” of the body, and we as various “members of the body.” The House of Yahweh is, therefore, not an “organization” (a “legal entity”) but a living, breathing “organism.” This should not be a difficult biblical doctrine to grasp, particularly for the Pastor. Sadly, however, ever since local churches started organizing as tax-exempt non-profit corporations in the mid-twentieth century, and since the incorporated 501c3 church is now the status quo, many folks have a hard time conceiving of the church operating as just a church. For some odd reason, just being a church isn’t good enough anymore for too many believers. The thinking today appears to be that we must somehow be smarter than Yahshua and His disciples were. They refused to incorporate and that refusal resulted in their persecution (incorporation of all “spontaneous collectivities of persons” became mandatory throughout the Roman Empire by 6 A.D.). We’re told that we live in a far more complex world than the first-century church, and so the church too must inevitably become more complex and just adapt to the complexities of the modern information age. The simplicities of the organizational infrastructure (polity) of the early church are no longer adequate to address the complex world in which we live.


Those who hold to such beliefs, whether in word or deed, are in reality, making a public proclamation that Yahshua Messiah is no longer competent to govern the House of Yahweh and provide for, and protect it.


The courts well-understand that “a church is not an entity recognized in law,” meaning that they have no jurisdiction over the church. However, organizing a church as a church is an especially difficult concept for attorneys to grasp. Few attorneys can comprehend that there are things and issues completely outside the purview and jurisdiction of the civil government, nor do they much care for the idea. After all, it’s hard to get many billable hours out of those churches that understand that the civil government has no jurisdiction over them. A free-church needs an attorney like a fish needs a bicycle. The legal support for the State’s lack of jurisdiction over the church in America is not only the Word of Yahweh, but the First Amendment to the Constitution for the United States:


Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof…                                                                 


No church in any nation at any point in history can lay claim to the freedoms and liberties that are guaranteed the church in America. The First Amendment is an act of Yahweh’s Providence to safeguard His church and maintain its independence from the State. The First Amendment is the highest form of real protection the church has ever known in history. The solution rests in the church abandoning the phony third-rate protections and benefits of the State and returning to those real protections and benefits that are ours in Yahweh’s Laws. Although it's not inherently difficult to unlicense a State-Church and/or organize and operate as a free-church or free-ministry, you'll still need some guidance and direction. Thankfully, there's no need to hire an attorney. All you need is some basic do-it-yourself education.




Consider the covenant made with Abraham for it was an everlasting covenant. It is passed down from generation to generation. This covenant did not involve any other party, nor was there a need to get a government stamp of approval. In Genesis the 22nd chapter we see the story of Abraham and the revealing of more of this trust covenant between him and Yahweh.


Genesis 22:14 “And Abraham called the name of the place, Yahweh-Yireh, that is Yahweh will provide; as it is said to this day. On the mountain of Yahweh it will be provided.”


The word Mountain in Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary is word #2022 and means: the holy mountain of Yahweh.

The word Yahweh-yireh in Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary is word #3070/7200 which means: Yahweh; to see the face of Yahweh.


Abraham was face to face with Yahweh in a covenant relationship. He was at the Holy Mountaing or the House of Yahweh, which was established as an everlasting covenant. The House of Yahweh is not a corporation, it does not need protection from the State, nor permission to carry out it’s objective. You are the House of Yahweh, that is, if the Spirit of Yahweh dwells in you. As the body of Messiah, we must not prostitute this body to godworship and godworshippers. Let us not incorporate ourselves to a dead body. Let us trust in Yahweh and believe as Abraham did, and it will be accounted to us as righteousness. We need to keep the Covenant of Peace, the everlasting Laws of Yahweh. It is our job to reveal false doctrines and to expose the workers of darkness. Do the job of a minister, study to show yourselves approved and pray for the day of deliverance.


Lunar Moon, Sabbath, Feast Cycle According to

Historical/Biblical Records:

All the information herein provided from the historical record by no means surpasses the scriptures themselves, but instead is provided for additional support to validate the Word of Yahweh

The following words used in this article, defined and mean:

Full Moon- a moon that has gone through it’s full monthly cycle, 30+ days, not a fully lit moon, on the 15th day of the month.
Strong’s Hebrew and Greek Concordance, defined words will have the following usage: H613 or G613; H= hebrew, G= Greek definition and arrangement.
Embolismic moon- a full moon that has gone a full lunar cycle (30+ days).
The word moon is #H3394 which means: the moon, as a measurement of time.
The word month is #H2320 which means: the new moon, the day of the new moon.

Table of Contents:

CHAPTER ONE Introduction- “The Calling of Yahweh; The Seven Day Cycle of Yahweh’s Week” pages 1-8
CHAPTER TWO “The Moon; Moon Worship, and the Calendar” pages 9-19
CHAPTER THREE “Deuteronomy 16:1 ‘Observe’ this moon” pages 19-22
CHAPTER FOUR  “The Hebrew 30 Day Moon and Full Moon Count” pages 23-32
CHAPTER FIVE “New Moon Sanctification Was the Responsibility of the Sanhedrin High Court” pages 32-35
CHAPTER SIX “The Monthly Count and its reckoning with the 7 day Week Count; Exodus 16th Chapter an example of both counts” pages 36-39
CHAPTER SEVEN “Feast of Trumpets, A Sabbath New Moon Day” pages 39-48
CHAPTER EIGHT “Let there be Light; the Command of Yahweh” pages 49-54
CHAPTER NINE “Yahweh’s New Moon to Set the Months; The Lesser Light; Shabbat Rosh Chodesh; Psalm 104:19; Yeremyah 31:35” pages 54-58
CHAPTER 10 “Numerical Symbolism and Other Scriptures Worth Examining” pages 58-67
CONCLUSION pages 68, 69

Scriptures index:

Genesis 2:2, 3,4
Exodus 34:22......................................................................pages 5,20
Exodus 8
Exodus 19,32
Genesis 37
Exodus 16:4, 5, 22-26, 8,9, 38
Leviticus 41
Psalm 81:3, 42
Genesis 1:1-5......................................................................pages 49-51
Genesis 1:14-16..................................................................pages 52,53
Psalm 54
Yeremyah 58
Isayah 66:23; 65
Numbers 10:11,12, 67,68

CHAPTER ONE Introduction- “The Calling of Yahweh; The Seven Day Cycle of Yahweh’s Week”

When one makes a decision to follow Yahweh, there comes a desire from within, to increase the knowledge of the Most Holy One. This desire is the calling of Yahweh to understand his precepts, line upon line, precept upon precept, here a little, and there a little. In our walk to pursue righteousness and please Yahweh, some people are proactive, and take the course of intense study, while others are passive, and just leave it up to others to teach them. Most people when converting, attend church, synagogue, or other places to learn, with a sincere desire to follow the written words found in the bible, to the best of their ability. Many look to the churches teachings for guidance and knowledge of Yahweh, in their pursuit of truth.

In today’s society, we find many religions, churches, synagogues, of every denomination, and non-denominational, who say we preach “salvation.” As a boy, I went to churches like this, and like most believers, worshiped the creator on Sunday! I can remember going every Sunday and listened to my mother’s instruction to me, as she was in opposition to some church teachings that she felt was not in line with scripture. This gave me a directive that we must search for truth, even if it goes against the majority, or the preacher! So at that time, in my conversion process, Sunday was the only day of rest worship I knew as the proper time (day of rest) to worship our Creator. As we grew in understanding and went from church to church looking for the pure word, Yahweh led us to search for truth in understanding His ways. One change that was made a few years into my spiritual growth process, was the awareness of the 4th commandment contained within the Ten commandments, that revealed to me that I was keeping the Sabbath day, on the wrong day. It reads in the following:

Exodus 20:8-11 "Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to Yahweh your Elohim. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your manservant or maidservant, nor your animals, nor the alien within your gates. For in six days the Yahweh made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore Yahweh blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.”

Now, this scripture caused me to examine my belief about Sunday worship (1st day worship) and compare the difference between it and the seventh day of rest, which fell on Friday night sunset until Saturday night at sunset. My searching caused me to eventually realize that the 1st day of the week didn’t line up with the commandment of the seventh day of rest! It was through some simple research that I made a change and after understanding how to count the days, I followed the 7th day Sabbath (day of rest). This was done in obedience to the commandment to rest from my work, as Yahweh had rested from his work! In fact, there wasn’t much controversy in regards to the day of the Sabbath, because everyone or every 7th day sabbath keeping religious group, followed the 7 day sabbath, according to the cycle of the 7 day week. This is seen in the calendar used by most of the world and I thought was correct.

It has only been in the last year, that I was made aware of a teaching now being revealed, called, “Lunar Sabbath Observance.” This teaching states that the 7th day of rest, is set according to the new moon. So every month, the sabbath falls on the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th day according to the conjunction of the new moon. This observance has given occasion for me to investigate, and continue my research for truth, in this case, concerning the 7th day of rest, called the Sabbath Day and how it is set! Hopefully this study will address many issues of controversy, and it is my intention to approach the written word of this Law, historical records and any other facts available, with an unbiased and open mind! I have found that controversial doctrinal matters can be sensitive to most people and must be handled in a courteous and respectful way. I will attempt to handle this topic in such a way, by showing the truths that are available through historical and biblical accounts, as well as through definition of the Hebrew language. There is no doubt this study will not satisfy everyone’s curiosity, but it is open for review and if anything provided is in error, I humbly accept correction, and will correct any error!

While there is much debate and discussion on the dark moon lunar sightings, and the dark lunar sabbath count doctrine, hopefully this study can help bring both camps together to realize that Yahweh did give us his laws and He did allow our ancient fathers to have authority over the sanctification and declaration of the sacred seasons, which they passed down to us in historical records, for our example. While this is my opinion, I can’t believe a loving, heavenly father would leave his people deceived about something as important as the sabbath day for thousands of years! While it is always every person’s responsibility to know the law, we know in these time periods that there are many who have stepped forward to bring forth ministries that expound and delve into deep aspects of the scriptures. I have not attempted to discredit anyone, or challenge their scholarly knowledge, but instead to provide the facts available at this time. I hope that this study will allow all parties who are in Covenant with Yahweh, to examine the facts presented, both from a biblical, and historical point of view and bring unity among the people of Yahweh. While both parties are passionate in their desire to keep the Laws of Yahweh, this study has proven to me, that there are not enough historical proofs to substantiate a Lunar Dark Moon Sighting, or a Lunar New Moon Sabbath count. The evidence is overwhelming from historical records that the Ancient Hebrews did sight a crescent moon for the New Moon Day, and have never lost track of the 7 day continuous count. Yahweh is a father who wants unity, not separation and division. Let’s pray that the sabbath day can bring unity, not division!


We are shown in Genesis that in the beginning ‘Elohim created’. In the first chapter of Genesis we are shown the creation process that was done in the creation of heaven and earth and all that it encompasses. After the completion of the creation, we are told Elohim rested from His work on the 7th day, creating the Sabbath day! It is not my intention to add to the word of Yahweh and the name “elohim” is used exclusively in the Hebrew text, until Genesis 2:4, so I will follow what is written in the Hebrew manuscripts! (*editors note: this is clarified for those who have a negative reaction to the word elohim, thinking it is a pagan title.)

Genesis 2:2,3 “And on the seventh day Elohim completed his work which He had made. And He rested on the seventh day from all his work which He had made. And Elohim blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because he rested from all His work on it, which Elohim had created to make.”

We see here in this scripture that Elohim, who after this scripture is called, “Yahweh Elohim”, created all things in heaven and in earth in six days, and He rested on the seventh day.

This word, seventh, is #7637 and means: seventh, an ordinal number.
The word, ordinal is defined as: well ordered set. Of pertaining to an order, rank, or position.

So we can see that the 7th day is a well ordered set of days, that pertain to an order, rank, or position in Yahweh’s work week. Six days of work, the seventh day is rest! That is the order!

The word order means: A condition of logical or comprehensible arrangement among the separate elements of a group.

We find that this is the arrangement of how Yahweh Elohim did His work, and His rest (six days work, seventh day rest). This is the set order for what is called a week. If one counts the weeks by seven, there is a continuous cycle that will continue on forever. It is not affected by any other celestial body, and it doesn’t cause any negative cause and effect to the arrangement of the months or years in the recording of time.

The word week or weeks is mentioned as one of the Feasts of Yahweh.

Exodus 34:22 “And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks 7620, of the firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the year's 8141 end 8622.”

The word weeks is #H7620 which means: seven, period of seven.
The word year’s is #H8141 which means: a year, as a division of time, as a measure of time.  
The word end is #H8622 which means: coming round, circuit; course of time, season.

We see in this scripture of what would be called “Yahweh’s sacred year, feast circuit” as this part of the year ended at the Feast of Ingathering, for the festival year of Yahweh.

In Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon, GESENIUS, BDB, translated by Edward Robinson, page 988, we find the following definition for ‘weeks:

We can see from the above definition, that weeks is defined as a period of seven days. In Deut. 16:9; Lev. 12:5, the same word is used and defined as a period of seven days. So we can see that the cycle of seven days is called a ‘week’, and is used to determine a seven day period, which is seven consecutive days in a row. It can also be a period of seven consecutive weeks, or years, depending on its usage in scripture. We see that Yahweh did set an order of time from the beginning, of a seven day cycle, which is not set according to the moon, but by HIS work week! History does not indicate that the seven day cycle of work/rest has ever changed or been lost by the Hebrew people! In the Hebrew language the seventh day of rest is called the sabbath.

Did you know that in 108 of the 160 languages of mankind, the seventh day is called "the Sabbath!" Dr. William Mead Jones of London prepared a chart proving this. You can view this chart at:

Also worth noting, English is one of the few major languages in which the seventh day is not called "the Sabbath!" Here are ten examples of languages that call the 7th day a sabbath day: Hebrew: Shabbath / Greek: Sabbaton / Latin: Sabbatum / Arabic: Assabit / Persian: Shambin / Russian: Subbota / Hindustani: Shamba / French: Samedi / Italian: Sabbato / Spanish: Sabado.

The Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. vol. 4, p. 988, tells us:

The week is a period of seven days, having no reference whatever to the celestial motions--a circumstance to which it owes its unalterable uniformity... It has been employed from time immemorial in almost all eastern countries.

Notice that the period of seven days or week, has no reference to the celestial motions.

Showing the UNCHANGED ORDER of the Days and the true Position of the SABBATH, as proved by the combined testimony of Ancient and Modern Languages. (Number of Languages were spoken, read, or otherwise Used 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, Name of the SEVENTH DAY.)
  • 1. Shemitic Hebrew Bible world-wide:  Day One Day Second Day Third Day Fourth Day Fifth Day the Sixth Yom hash-shab-bath Day the Sabbath  
  • 2. Hebrew (Ancient and Modern):  One into the Sabbath Second into the Sabbath Third into the Sabbath Fourth into the Sabbath Fifth into the Sabbath Eve of Holy Sabbath Shab-bath Sabbath  
  • 3. Targum of Onkelos (Hebrew Literature):  Day One Day Second Day Third Day Fourth Day Fifth Day the Sixth Yom hash-shab-bath Day the Sabbath  
  • 4. Targum Dialect of the Jews in Kurdistan:  Day One of the Seven Day 2nd of the Seven Day 3rd of the Seven Day 4th of the Seven Day 5th of the Seven Day of Eve  (of Sabbath) yoy-met sha-bat kodesh Holy Sabbath Day  
  • 5. Ancient Syriac: *Each day proceeds on,  and belongs to the Sabbath  One into Sabbath Two into Sabbath Three into Sabbath Four into Sabbath Five into Sabbath Eve  (of Sabbath) Shab-ba-tho Sabbath  
  • 6. Chaldee Syriac Kurdistan and Urdmia, Persia:  One into Sabbath Two into Sabbath Three into Sabbath Four into Sabbath Five into Sabbath Eve (of Sabbath) Shap-ta Sabbath  
  • 7. Samaritan (Old Hebrew Letters) Nablus, Palestine:  Day One Day Second Day Third Day Fourth Day Fifth Day Sixth Shab-bath Sabbath
  • 8. Babylonian Euphrates & Tigris Valleys Mesopotamia (Written lang. 3800 B.C.):  First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Sa-ba-tu Sabbath
  • 9. Assyrian Euphrates and Tigris Valleys, Mesopotamia:  First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth sa-ba-tu Sabbath  
  • 10. Arabic (Very old names):  Business Day Light Moon War Chief Turning Day or Midweek Familiar or Society Day Eve  (of Sabbath) Shi-yar Chief or Rejoicing Day
  • 11. Arabic (Ancient and Modern) Westn. Asia,  E,W & N. Africa:  The One The Two The Three The Four The Fith Assembly (day, Muham) as-sabt The Sabbath  
  • 12. Maltese, Malta:  One (day) Two (and day) The 3 (3rd d.) The 4 (4th d.) Fifth (day) Assembly Is-sibt. The Sabbath  
  • 13. Ge-ez or Ethiopic Abyssinia (Ge-ez signifies "original"):  One (day) Second Third Fourth Fifth Eve (of Sabbath) san-bat Sabbath  
  • 14. Tigre Abyssinia (Closely related to Ge-ez):  One (First day) Second Third Fourth Fifth Eve (of Sabbath) san-bat Sabbath  
  • 15. Amharic, Abyssinia (Nearly related to Ge-ez):  One Second Third Fourth Fifth Eve (of Sabbath) san-bat Sabbath  
  • 16. Falasha (Language of the  Jews of Abyssinia):  One Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth yini sanbat The Sabbath  
  • 17. Coptic / Egypt (A dead lang. for 200 years):  The First Day The 2nd Day The 3rd Day The 4th Day The 5th Day The 6th Day pi sabbaton The Sabbath  
  • 18. Orma or Galla South of Abyssinia: (This language has two sets of names, the first being the oldest)  Lady, Virgin Mary Day. Great or Festival Sabbath Second day. First Trade Day 3rd Day to the Sabbath. Second Trade Day 4th day to the Sabbath. Fourth (day) Fifth (day) Assembly (day) Last day of the half-week inclusive of 4th day. Little or Humble or Solemn Sabbath  (A day of no ceremonial display and no work)  
  • 19. Tamashek or Towarek. (From ancient Lybian or Numidian). Atlas Mountains, Africa:  First day Second day Third day Fourth day Fifth day Assembly Day a-hal es-sabt. The Sabbath Day  
  • 20. Kabyle or Berber (Ancient Numidian) North Africa:  Day the One (First) Day the Two (2nd) Day the Three (3rd) Day the Four (4th) Day the Fifth The Assembly Day ghas or wars assebt The Sabbath Day  
  • 21. Hausa Central Africa:  The One (1st) The Two (2nd) The Three (3rd) The Four (4th) The Fifth The Assembly assebatu The Sabbath  
  • 22. Urdu or Hindustani (Muhammadan and Hindu, India) (Two names for the days):  One to Sabbath. Sunday 2nd to Sabbath. Moon-day 3rd to Sabbath. Mars 4th to Sabbath. Mercury 5th to Sabbath. (Eve of Juma) Assembly (day) sanichar - Saturn shamba - Sabbath  
  • 23. Pashto or Afghan Afghanistan:  One to the Sabbath Two to Sabbath Three to Sabbath Four to Sabbath Five to Sabbath Assembly (day) khali - Unemployed-day,  Shamba - Sabbath

There is no record of the Hebrew Nation ever using the Lunar Moon as a count to set the work/rest weekly cycle, but only the year! The seven day cycle is from ancient times and has been kept, as it is today, since antiquity as a 7 day continuous cycle. Below is a list of credible experts in their field, concerning the seven day week and its history:

"By calculating the eclipses, it can be proven that no time has been lost and the creation days were seven, divided into 24 hours each."—Dr. Hinkley, The Watchman, July 1926 [Hinkley was a well-known astronomer].

"The human race never lost the septenary [seven day] sequence of week days and that the Sabbath of these latter times comes down to us from Adam, through the ages, without a single lapse."—Dr. Totten, professor of astronomy at Yale University.

"Seven has been the ancient and honored number among the nations of the earth. They have measured their time by weeks from the beginning. The origin of this was the Sabbath of God, as Moses has given the reasons for it in his writings."—Dr. Lyman Coleman, Yale University.

"There has been no change in our calendar in past centuries that has affected in any way the cycle of the week."—James Robertson, Director American Ephemeris, Navy Department, U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C., March 12, 1932.

"It can be said with assurance that not a day has been lost since Creation, and all the calendar changes notwithstanding, there has been no break in the weekly cycle."—Dr. Frank Jeffries, Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society and Research Director of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England.

"One of the most striking collateral confirmations of the Mosaic history of the creation is the general adoption of the division of time into weeks, which extends from the Christian states of Europe to the remote shores of Hindustan, and has equally prevailed among the Hebrews. the Egyptians, Chinese, Greeks, Romans, and northern barbarians,- nations some of whom had little or no intercourse with others, and were not even known by name to the Hebrews."- Home's "Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures," Vol. I, page 69, edition 1841.

In Exodus 20:8-11 we see this same 7 day, work/rest week, a set order, listed in what is called, the Ten Commandments of Yahweh.

Exodus 20:8-11Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy; six days you shall labor and do all your work; and the seventh day is a sabbath to Yahweh your Elohim; you shall not do any work, you, and your son, and your daughter, your male slave and your slave girl, and your livestock, and your stranger who is in your gates. For in six days Yahweh made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all which is in them, and He rested on the seventh day; on account of this Yahweh blessed the sabbath day and sanctified it.”

What is interesting to note in this commandment is that Yahweh worked six days, and rested on the seventh day, this was his order, or logical arrangement, of what is called a week. It does not give instruction in this commandment to keep or appoint the 7th day sabbath of rest, according to the moon. It does not state to set the sabbath day or seventh day of rest, according to the cycle of the moon. It doesn’t say to rest on the 8th, 15th, 22nd day, starting from the 1st day of every new moon. It states six days you shall labor and do all your work and the seventh day is a sabbath day, HOLY TO YAHWEH! It is the seventh day of the week, when you rest from your work, this is the continuous work/rest cycle! We are shown Yahweh rested on the seventh day in Genesis 2:2,3. This is the scriptural foundational reference point for the origin of the seven day cycle of work/rest. This seven day cycle was started by Yahweh, at creation, and His chosen people have kept that seven day work/rest cycle. There is no other indication in scripture, of the seven day work/rest cycle, being done in any other way or starting at any other point, other than from its original conception at creation! No mention of the New Moon setting the sabbath day! Nor is there any mention of the weekly cycle being interrupted, changed, or stopped, before the time of Mosheh, or after, when the sabbath was re-instituted to the nation by him, as part of its constitution and foundation for holiness.

The word sabbath is #H7676 which means: abstinence of labour. To rest; The seventh day of the week.

In Exodus 16:25 we find this explanation about the sabbath day of Yahweh.

Exodus 16:25 “And Mosheh said, Eat it today, for today is a sabbath to Yahweh, Today you will not find it in the field. You shall gather it six days, and on the seventh is a sabbath; in it none shall be found. And it happened on the seventh day, some of the people went out to gather, and did not find any. And Yahweh said to Mosheh, Until when do you refuse to keep My Commandments and My laws? See, because Yahweh has given the Sabbath to you, therefore He is giving to you two days of bread on the sixth day. Each one of you remain in his place. Do not let anyone go out from his place on the seventh day. And the people rested on the seventh day.”

Please notice the following points from this scripture:

  • the work of gathering the manna was to be done in six days, and the seventh day was a sabbath, or cease from labour, day.
  • on the seventh day there was no manna.
  • the sabbath day is one of Yahweh’s commandments or laws.
  • two days of manna were given on the sixth day, and the people were commanded to remain in their place on the seventh day.
  • There is NO mention of the people resting on the 8th, 15th, 22nd, or 29th day of the month, set according to the moon cycle as a 7th day Sabbath, or calling it a sabbath day. None of the hebrew words indicate the 8th, 15th, 22nd, or 29th day to be a sabbath day of rest. The work week of Yahweh, is an arranged ordinance of a 7 day cycle, which was commanded from creation as we saw in Genesis 2:2,3!
  • Notice Yahweh says the people were not obeying His sabbath commandment, law! This shows that the sabbath day was a law/commandment of Yahweh, established before the Ten Commandments were given in Exodus, chapter 20, at Mt. Sinai! There are some who say that while they were in Egypt, they lost the sabbath day of rest, but there is no historical records to back this claim, nor does the bible say that they lost the knowledge of the sabbath day of rest!

CHAPTER TWO “The Moon, Moon Worship, and the Calendar”


Yahweh did create within his 7 day creation process, the moon, which is called the lesser light. This is important because the “Lunar Sabbath theory” is basing the sabbath day count, from the sighting of the new moon day, to set the weekly 7th day of rest, with the sabbath day falling on the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th day, from conjunction new moon to new moon! Yet, we will see later in this study, that the moon was given its command on the 4th day, not the 1st day of creation. There is no indication in Genesis Chapter One, that the lesser light was created on the 1st day of the week, to set the work week or the sabbath day of rest! Let’s first get some information on the moon that will help us in this study to understand how people have started putting more emphasis on the creation, rather than the creator.

Deuteronomy 12:32 “All the things I command you, take heed to do them and you shall not add to it, nor take away from it.”

The word take heed, is #8104 which means: to keep, watch, observe. To guard.

Remember this definition and its meanings, as we proceed later in this study! It is used as the same word that is defined, ‘observe’ in Deuteronomy 16:1.
The Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth, and the fifth largest satellite in the Solar System. It is the largest natural satellite of a planet in the Solar System relative to the size of its primary, having 27% the diameter and 60% the density of Earth, resulting in 1⁄81 its mass. The Moon is the second densest satellite after Io, a satellite of Jupiter. It is in synchronous rotation with Earth, always showing the same face with its near side marked by dark volcanic maria that fill between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters. The Moon is the brightest object in the sky after the Sun, although its surface is actually very dark, with a reflectance similar to that of coal. Its prominence in the sky and its regular cycle of phases have, since ancient times, made the Moon an important cultural influence on language, calendars, art and mythology. The Moon's gravitational influence produces the ocean tides and the minute lengthening of the day. The Moon has an exceptionally low albedo, giving it a similar reflectance to coal. Despite this, it is the second brightest object in the sky after the Sun. This is partly due to the brightness enhancement of the opposition effect; at quarter phase, the Moon is only one-tenth as bright, rather than half as bright, as at full moon.

Additionally, colour constancy in the visual system recalibrates the relations between the colours of an object and its surroundings, and since the surrounding sky is comparatively dark, the sunlit Moon is perceived as a bright object. The edges of the full moon seem as bright as the centre, with no limb darkening, due to the reflective properties of lunar soil, which reflects more light back towards the Sun than in other directions. The Moon does appear larger when close to the horizon, but this is a purely psychological effect, known as the Moon illusion, first described in the 7th century BC. The full moon subtends an arc of about 0.52° (on average) in the sky, roughly the same apparent size as the Sun.

The Moon makes a complete orbit around the Earth with respect to the fixed stars about once every 27.3 days (its sidereal period). However, since the Earth is moving in its orbit about the Sun at the same time, it takes slightly longer for the Moon to show the same phase to Earth, which is about 29.5 days (its synodic period). Unlike most satellites of other planets, the Moon orbits nearer the ecliptic plane than to the planet's equatorial plane. The Moon's orbit is subtly perturbed by the Sun and Earth in many small, complex and interacting ways. For example, the plane of the Moon's orbital motion gradually rotates, which affects other aspects of lunar motion. These follow-on effects are mathematically described by Cassini's laws

We see from the above reference that the Moon is the brightest object in the sky, after the sun! The moon can be seen in the day, and at night is the brightest object in the night sky from observance here on earth! This is a scientific fact, not theory, not assumption! This is an exact science that is unchanging  and has been written in recorded history! The moon is the brightest object, next to the sun! However, we also know that the moon is in complete darkness, without the sun, and does not have any source of light, but instead, reflects light from the sun! Points to consider about the moon:

  • The moon is the brightest object in the sky from observance on earth, next to the sun.
  • The moons orbit is not consistent every month, it has a phase of approximately 29.5 days in its synodic period. (29 days 12 hours 44 minutes 3 ⅓ seconds to be exact!)
  • The moons orbit is subtly perturbed by the sun and the earth in many small, complex, and interacting ways, so one cannot just take it’s appearance from calculations alone.

New Moon:

In astronomy, new moon is the phase of the Moon when it lies closest to the Sun in the sky as seen from the Earth. More precisely, it is the instant when the Moon and the Sun have the same ecliptical longitude. The Moon is not normally visible at this time except when it is seen in silhouette during a solar eclipse. See the article on phases of the Moon for fuller details.

The original meaning of the phrase new moon was the first visible crescent of the Moon, after conjunction with the Sun. This takes place over the western horizon in a brief period between sunset and moonset, and therefore the precise time and even the date of the appearance of the new moon by this definition will be influenced by the geographical location of the observer. The astronomical new moon, sometimes known as the dark moon to avoid confusion, occurs by definition at the moment of conjunction in ecliptical longitude with the Sun, when the Moon is invisible from the Earth. This moment is unique and does not depend on location, and in certain circumstances it coincides with a solar eclipse.

The new moon in its original meaning of first crescent marks the beginning of the month in lunar calendars such as the Muslim calendar, and in lunisolar calendars such as the Hebrew calendar, Hindu calendars, and Buddhist calendar. But in the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the month is marked by the dark moon.

Collier’s Encyclopedia on the full moon cycle average.

The moon is set in the sky for many reasons, it affects the gravitational pull of earth, it affects the tides of the ocean, it also lights up the night sky many days of each moon cycle. It is not relevant to this study to go into every detail of what the moon does scientifically, but instead of its relevance to the Ancient Hebrew people and Yahweh’s people as to what the scripture wants us to know of its importance and its set order for showing the time to set the months and sacred year. The moon was not to be worshiped or idolized, the moon was a luminary and a convenient time indicator, devoid of personality. Just as the sun and the other celestial bodies were not to be worshiped, neither should we worship the moon. The Hebrews history has no record of them looking at every phase of the moon to set the days or  weeks, or using it for any other time calculation, other than the watchman being set out at the 30th day of its cycle to set the month for the Feasts! Once the New Moon was sighted and the month set the Feast, days were set according to daily counting to the Feasts! There is no biblical indication of moon calculations being done, to set any other days of the month, such as the weekly cycle for the sabbath day. We will provide in this study, evidence that the lunar new moon-crescent sighting, sets the daily count for each month and the monthly count for the sacred year!


The Hebrew people were emphatically commanded not to worship anyone or anything except Yahweh. They were warned that the other nations worshiped the creation, rather than the creator, and not to do as they worship. We find that Moon Worship was prevalent among the heathen nations going back to the time of Abraham! We will also see that the first city that they destroyed when entering the land of Canaan, was the city dedicated to MOON WORSHIP!

Reading from:

Sin.—The moon-god occupied the chief place in the astral triad. Its other two members, Shamash the sun and Ishtar the planet Venus, were his children. Thus it was, in effect, from the night that light had emerged. In his physical aspect Sin—who was venerated at Ur under the name of Nannar—was an old man with along beard the color of lapis-lazuli. He normally wore a turban. Every evening he got into his barque—which to mortals appeared in the form of a brilliant crescent moon—and navigated the vast spaces of the nocturnal sky. Some people, however, believed that the luminous crescent was Sin's weapon. But one day the crescent gave way to a disk which stood out in the sky like a gleaming crown. There could be no doubt that this was the god's own crown; and then Sin was called "Lord of the Diadem". These successive and regular transformations lent Sin a certain mystery. For this reason he was considered to be 'He whose deep heart no god can penetrate'... Sin was also full of wisdom. At the end of every month the gods came to consult them and he made decisions for them...His wife was Ningal, 'the great Lady'. He was the father not only of Shamash and Ishtar but also of a son Nusku, the god fire. (Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, 1960, p 54-56)
The worship of the Moon god " Sîn" was widespread and common during the time of Abraham. Contrary to Muslim claims, Abraham was asked to leave Ur of the Chaldees where the moon god Sîn was worshipped and migrate to Canaan and worship Yahweh. The Ur of Chaldees is in the region of Babylon. *
The Mesopotamian Ziggurat: Temple of the moon God 2100 BC.
"Sîn, moon god of Semitic origin, worshiped in ancient Middle Eastern religions. One of the principal deities in the Babylonian and Assyrian pantheons, he was lord of the calendar and of wisdom. The chief centers of his worship were at Harran and at Ur, where he was known as Nanna." (, Sîn)
The tower of Babal in Gen 10 may in fact have been a Ziggurat.
The ziggurat of Ur. , and the of the moon god Sîn who is seen being carried in procession to the temple called the "Hill of Heaven".
Above is actual drawing at the British Museum in London.
Nanna was worshipped in the ziggurat of Ur. There was also a smaller temple for Ningal the moon goddess. Nanna was worshipped both by a High Priestes and priests. Great Kings throughout history from Sargon 2600 BC to Nabonidus 550 BC had their daughters officiate as high-priestess of Nanna at Ur. The tradition begins with the first dynasties of Ur around 3400 BC and continued through to the fall of Ur around the time of Nabonidus, a period of some 3000 years. As we shall see this tradition continued for another 1700 years at Harran and still underlies the Islam of today. *
"The Sumerians, in the first literate civilization, left thousands of clay tablets describing their religious beliefs. As demonstrated by Sjöberg and Hall, the ancient Sumerians worshipped a moon-god who was called by many different names. The most popular names were Nanna, Suen, and Asimbabbar" (Mark Hall, A Study of the Sumerian Moon-god, Sin, PhD., 1985, University of Pennsylvania).

"Sin’s symbol was the crescent moon. Given the amount of artifacts concerning the worship of this moon-god, it is clear that this was the dominant religion in Sumeria. The cult of the moon-god was the most popular religion throughout ancient Mesopotamia. The Assyrians, Babylonians, and Arkkadians took the word Suen and transformed it into the word Sîn as their favourite name for this deity." (Austin Potts, The Hymns and Prayers to the Moon-god, Sin, PhD., 1971, Dropsie College, p.2).

Ashtereth was the Phoenician-Canaanite Moon Goddess, usually symbolized with the horns of a cow, who the children of Israel worshipped when they departed from the worship of Yahweh! She was the the principal female deity, frequently associated with the name of Baal, the sun god, their chief male deity. (Judges 10:6; I Samuel 7:4, 12:10; Yeremyah 7:18; 44:17,18)

We can see that the moon was worshiped by the other nations, and the Summerian God, Sin’s symbol, was the crescent moon! This symbol is carried down today as the symbol for Islam! However, the Hebrew people never used any symbols in their worship, and just because other religions worshiped the crescent moon, did not make the sighting of the crescent moon by the Hebrew people, a pagan practice! There is no indication in the history of the Ancient Hebrew people, that the sighting of the New Moon crescent, which they used in order to set the Feasts and months, was a pagan practice adopted from other nations! However, historical and biblical records reveal that they did fall into the worship of the gods from the other nations, which did include the Moon Worship of Ashtereth. Of course at this point in their history, this did cut them off from Yahweh. We find throughout the bible that they did oscillate in their worship of Yahweh. Let’s examine their calculations for time!


The Ancient Hebrew people like most people had a way to reckon the hours, days, weeks, months, and year. Today, most of society uses a solar calendar, that is based on the sun, and they don’t pay attention to the lunar moon cycle for setting the Feasts of Yahweh or their holidays.

A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial, or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months, and years. A date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. Periods in a calendar (such as years and months) are usually, though not necessarily, synchronized with the cycle of the sun or the moon. Many civilizations and societies have devised a calendar, usually derived from other calendars on which they model their systems, suited to their particular needs. A calendar is also a physical device (often paper). This is the most common usage of the word. Other similar types of calendars can include computerized systems, which can be set to remind the user of upcoming events and appointments.

A full calendar system has a different calendar date for every day. Thus the week cycle is by itself not a full calendar system; neither is a system to name the days within a year without a system for identifying the years.

The simplest calendar system just counts time periods from a reference date. This applies for the Julian day or Unix Time. Virtually the only possible variation is using a different reference date, in particular one less distant in the past to make the numbers smaller. Computations in these systems are just a matter of addition and subtraction. Let’s examine a few types of calendars to get a better understanding of the many types that were used for time calculation.


A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere.


A lunar calendar is one in which days are numbered within each lunar phase cycle. Because the length of the lunar month is not an even fraction of the length of the tropical year, a purely lunar calendar quickly drifts against the seasons, which don't vary much near the equator. It does, however, stay constant with respect to other phenomena, notably tides.


A lunisolar calendar is a lunar calendar that compensates by adding an extra month as needed to realign the months with the seasons. An example is the Jewish calendar which uses a 19-year cycle.


The Hebrew calendar (הלוח העברי ha'luach ha'ivri), or Jewish calendar, is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances. It determines the dates for Jewish holidays and the appropriate public reading of Torah portions, yahrzeits (dates to commemorate the death of a relative), and daily Psalm reading, among many ceremonial uses. In Israel, it is an official calendar for civil purposes and provides a time frame for agriculture. The current year according to the Jewish calendar is 5773.

Originally the Babylonian calendar was used by Jews for all daily purposes, but following the conquest of Jerusalem by Pompey in 63 BCE (see also Iudaea province), Jews began additionally following the imperial civil calendar, which was decreed in 45 BCE, for civic matters such as the payment of taxes and dealings with government officials.

The Hebrew calendar has evolved over time. For example, until the Tannaitic period (approximately 10–220 CE) the months were set by observation of a new crescent moon, with an additional month added every two or three years to correct for the difference between twelve lunar months and the solar year, and therefore, to keep Passover in the spring. The addition of the extra month was also based on observation of natural events, namely the ripening of the barley crop, the age of the kids, lambs and doves, the ripeness of the fruit trees, and the relation to the Tekufah (seasons). Through the Amoraic period (200 to 500 CE) and into the Geonic period, this system was displaced by mathematical rules. The principles and rules appear to have been settled by the time Maimonides compiled the Mishneh Torah in the 12th century.

Because of the roughly eleven-day difference between twelve lunar months and one solar year, the length of the Hebrew calendar year varies in the repeating 19-year Metonic cycle of 235 lunar months, with the intercalary month added according to defined rules every two or three years, for a total of 7 times per 19 years. Seasonal references in the Hebrew calendar reflect its development in the region east of the Mediterranean and the times and climate of the Northern Hemisphere. The Hebrew calendar year is longer by about 6 minutes and 25+25/57 seconds than the present-day mean solar year, so that every 224 years, the Hebrew calendar will fall a full day behind the modern solar year, and about every 231 years it will fall a full day behind the Gregorian calendar year.

The Modern Jewish calendar is a lunisolar calendar, or fixed lunar year, based on twelve lunar months of twenty-nine or thirty days, with an intercalary lunar month added seven times every nineteen years (once every two to three years) to synchronize the twelve lunar cycles with the slightly longer solar year. Each Jewish lunar month starts with the new moon, but not according to sighting the crescent moon. Although originally the new lunar crescent had to be observed and certified by reliable witnesses, who reported to the Sanhedriun High Court, the moment of the new moon is now approximated arithmetically, by Jews today.

In his book, The Temple: Its Ministry and Services, Alfred Edersheim, Chapter 10--Festive Cycles and Arrangement of the Calendar, we find the following information:

The New Moon

And this brings up yet another difficulty. The Jews calculated the month according to the phases of the moon, each month consisting of either twenty-nine or thirty days, and beginning with the appearance of the new moon. But this opened a fresh field of uncertainty. It is quite true that every one might observe for himself the appearance of a new moon. But this would again partly depend on the state of the weather. Besides, it left an authoritative declaration of the commencement of a month unsupplied. And yet not only was the first of every month to be observed as 'New Moon's Day,' but the feasts took place on the 10th, 15th, or other day of the month, which could not be accurately determined without a certain knowledge of its beginning. To supply this want the Sanhedrim sat in the 'Hall of Polished Stones' to receive the testimony of credible witnesses that they had seen the new moon. To encourage as many as possible to come forward on so important a testimony, these witnesses were handsomely entertained at the public expense. If the new moon had appeared at the commencement of the 30th day--which would correspond to our evening of the 29th, as the Jews reckoned the day from evening to evening--the Sanhedrim declared the previous month to have been one of twenty-nine days, or 'imperfect.' Immediately thereon men were sent to a signal-station on the Mount of Olives, where beacon-fires were lit and torches waved, till a kindling flame on a hill in the distance indicated that the signal had been perceived. Thus the tidings, that this was the new moon, would be carried from hill to hill, far beyond the boundaries of Palestine, to those of the dispersion, 'beyond the river.' Again, if credible witnesses had not appeared to testify to the appearance of the new moon on the evening of the 29th, the next evening, or that of the 30th, according to our reckoning, was taken as the commencement of the new month, in which case the previous month was declared to have been one of thirty days, or 'full.' It was ruled that a year should neither have less than four nor more than eight such full months of thirty days. *editor’s note: we will learn about this full moon later in this study!

The Seven Messengers of The New Moon

But these early fire-signals opened the way for serious inconvenience. The enemies of the Jews lit beacons to deceive those at a distance, and it became necessary to send special messengers to announce the new moon. These were, however, despatched only seven times in the year, just in time for the various feasts--in Nisan, for the Passover on the 15th, and in the month following, Iyar, for the 'Second Passover,' kept by those who had been debarred from the first (Num 9:9-11); in Ab (the fifth month), for the fast on the 9th, on account of the destruction of Jerusalem; in Elul (the sixth month), on account of the approaching solemnities of Tishri; in Tishri (the seventh month), for its festivals; in Kislev (the ninth month), for the Feast of the Dedication of the Temple; and in Adar, for Purim. Thus, practically, all difficulties were removed, except in reference to the month Elul, since, as the new moon of the following month, or Tishri, was the 'Feast of Trumpets,' it would be exceedingly important to know in time whether Elul had twenty-nine or thirty days. But here the Rabbis ruled that Elul should be regarded as a month of twenty-nine days, unless a message to the contrary were received--that, indeed, since the days of Ezra it had always been so, and that accordingly New Year's Day would be the day after the 29th of Elul. To make, however, assurance doubly sure, it soon became the practice to keep New Year's Day on two successive days, and this has since been extended into a duplication of all the great feast days (of course, with the exception of fasts), and that, although the calendar has long been fixed, and error is therefore no more possible. *editor’s note: in the Ancient Times the Crescent New Moon was sighted for the 1st and 7th moon only to set the Feasts of Yahweh. As other days become important in Hebrew history, other moons were sighted for importance.

Difficulties of the Calendar

Hitherto we have not adverted to the difficulties which those who intended to appear in Jerusalem at the feasts would experience from the want of any fixed calendar. As the year of the Hebrews was lunar, not solar, it consisted of only 354 days 8 hours 48' 38". This, distributed among twelve months, would in the course of years have completely disordered the months, so that the first month, or Nisan (corresponding to the end of March or the beginning of April), in the middle of which the first ripe barley was to be presented to the Lord, might have fallen in the middle of winter. Accordingly, the Sanhedrim appointed a Committee of three, of which the chief of the Sanhedrim was always president, and which, if not unanimous, might be increased to seven, when a majority of voices would suffice, to determine which year was to be made a leap-year by the insertion of a thirteenth month. Their resolution * was generally taken in the twelfth month (Adar), the additional, or thirteenth month (Ve-Adar), being inserted between the twelfth and the first.

* Tradition has it, that neither high-priest nor king ever took part in these deliberations, the former because he might object to a leap-year as throwing the Day of Atonement later into the cold season; the king, because he might wish for thirteen months, in order to get thirteen months' revenue in one year!

A Sabbatical year could not be a leap-year, but that preceding it was always such. Sometimes two, but never three, leap-years succeeded each other. Commonly, every third year required the addition of a month. The mean duration of the Jewish month being 29 days 12 hours 44' 3 1/3", it required, during a period of nineteen years, the insertion of seven months to bring the lunar era in accordance with the Julian.

Concurrently there is a weekly cycle of seven days, mirroring the seven-day period of the Book of Genesis in which the world is created. The names for the days of the week, like those in the Creation account, are simply the day number within the week, with Sabbath being the seventh day. The Jewish sabbath day always runs from sunset to the next sunset; the formal adjustments used to specify a standard time and time zones are not relevant to the Jewish calendar.

These calendars are what we see being used through history. But notice the Modern Jewish calendar is a lunisolar calendar! Also notice, today the Jewish people have abandoned the sighting of the Crescent New Moon, which was the original way they set the months! This is where tradition, has replaced custom, which became a statute, at the time of Mosheh!

The times (days, weeks, months, year) are set according to the sun and the moon! The sun sets the days and can be used for the civil year, and the moon sets the months and lunar year or the Feast Circuit! There is the civil year and there is a sacred year within the Hebrew calendar. Today, however, the Jewish people follow a calculated calendar to set the holy days, which are not always accurate, because they do not sight the Crescent Moon to verify the start of the new moon day count! Let’s look at historical records to see, how, and why, the new moon was important to the Ancient Hebrew people, and see why today’s believers, should be following the Ancient biblical counting of time to keep Yahweh’s appointed times. Today’s hebrew people or those whom Yahweh calls to learn his laws, use the lunar calendar to set the feasts, and a greater/lesser light, in their daily/weekly count to set the 7th day sabbath.

CHAPTER THREE “Deuteronomy 16:1 ‘Observe’ this moon”


In the scriptures we are shown in Deuteronomy 16:1 that the 1st moon of the Hebrew year, called Abib, was the first month in the sacred year (season) of Yahweh’s people.

Deuteronomy 16:1Observe the month Abib, and keep the Passover to Yahweh your Elohim. For in the month of Abib Yahweh your Elohim brought you out of Egypt by night.”

Exodus 12:2This month shall be the beginning of months for you; it is to be the first month of the year to you.

Leviticus 23:5 “On the 14th of the 1st moon, at evening, Yahweh’s Passover sacrifice is to be killed.”

We can see here that this 1st moon, set the beginning month for the year, which started with the Feast of Passover, ending at the Feast of Tabernacles in the fall, called by the Hebrew people, the Feast Circuit.

Exodus 34:22You shall observe the Feast of Weeks, the firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the Feast of Ingathering at the year’s end.”                                                     
It was from the 1st moon of Abib, that Yahweh’s Feast cycle began! This was the 1st month of the start of His Feast Cycle (Year), which was completed by the 7th Moon sighting, ending at the Last Great Day of the Feast of Tabernacles!

The word beginning as found in Exodus 12:2 is word #H7218 which means: head.

In Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon, GESENIUS, BDB, translated by Edward Robinson, page 911, we find the following definition for the word, ‘beginning’:

Notice that this word, ‘beginning,’ is shown to be defined as the first of months, not the first of the weekly count! If you read Exodus 12:2 it states clearly “This month shall be the beginning of months for you!”

Deuteronomy 16:1 “Observe”

Deuteronomy 16:1Observe the month of Abib, and keep the Passover unto Yahweh...”

There are some that say that you must ‘observe’ the New Moon in the dark phase and that this word ‘observe’ in Deuteronomy 16:1, is a case in point scripture, that shows the moon is in darkness and must be observed, visually, because it is covered. We will attempt to prove in this study that the crescent moon had to be observed to set the monthly cycle, as every historical account verifies! I would like to draw your attention to the fact that in this scripture the Hebrew word is describing, ‘observe’ as guarding, or protecting, not necessarily visually observing with the eyes, as many have claimed. While according to historical records, the new moon crescent was to be observed, this word ‘observe’ as shown in Deut. 16:1, is not the best case to try to prove this point of visual observation, for either parties.

The word observe is #H8104, which means: be mindful, keep, watch, preserve; guard all the precepts of Abib’s moon.

The word keep is #H6213 which means: to labour, to work about anything.

The definition shown here is to guard, preserve, this new moon of Abib, to observe, celebrate, directly guarding it to keep the festival of Yahweh! The Hebrew people were to guard and preserve the observance of this first moon, as it was there to show them the start of the festivals of Yahweh, his appointed times, the memorial remembrances for His people, the beginning of moons. This new moon was the beginning of the month in the sacred feast cycle, whereby one was to labour to the festival days of Yahweh. Remember six days you labor and the seventh day is a day of rest. When the Feast came, the labour ceased.

Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon, GESENIUS, BDB, translated by Edward Robinson, page 1036, we see the following concerning the word ‘observe’:

We see that this word ‘observe,’ means to preserve, keep, or watch as a verb. Then in 3(a.) we see observe, celebrate, accusative of the month of Abib. This word ‘observe’ is in a infinitive absolute, where the construct is possessive, which stands alone. In this case, the infinitive absolute is a verbal noun. With regard to function, however, there is no precise English equivalent to the Hebrew, Infinitive Absolute. For those who are unfamiliar with the Infinitive Absolute here is some insight into what is seen in Deuteronomy 16:1 with the word, ‘observe’.

From the book, Basics of Biblical Hebrew Grammar, by Pratico and Van Pelt, page 253:

The word ‘observe’ is acting as a verbal noun here in this passage (Deut.16:1). It has nothing to do with eyes, or looking at visually, which ‘observe’ portrays as a verb! The verb in this passage is ‘keep’, not ‘observe’! I am not trying to lessen the importance of sighting the new moon crescent, visually, as it did have to be observed to set the sacred year of moons. Just wanting to clarify this word, as it has been taken out of context by many biblical interpreters to prove a point of visual observation, by this scripture alone, which is not the true definition of this word.

The cycle of new moon observation to calculate the Feasts of Yahweh, would end at the seventh moon, in the fall! Many groups have the doctrinal belief that, ‘observe’, means to look for (observe) a new moon crescent, which is not the direct objective, as used here in Deuteronomy 16:1. This word, ‘observe’ is directing the Hebrew people to preserve this month, since it was the beginning of months starting the feast cycle, appointed times of Yahweh! History records that is was observed and from the definition of the words, we will see later that it was a lit moon that was observed!

Below is Deuteronomy 16:1 showing two scriptural examples of using the same word, ‘observe’ in the same form of Infinitive absolute. Hopefully this will give the bible student a more comprehensive understanding on the Hebrew language and how easily one can be sidetracked by many who just use a Strong’s Concordance to prove their studies, or misinterpret the Hebrew language and cause confusion in their studies. It is crucial to the serious bible student to learn the Hebrew language rules of grammar, if they want to be able to understand the meanings of words, that can so easily be taken out of context and used to build doctrines from elementary understandings.

From the King James Version and New International Version; Leningrad Codex we find:

Another example of a Qal, imperfect, 2nd person, masculine for the word ‘observe,’ which is not talking about, ‘looking with the eyes,’  is Job 13:27:

While this information is not intended to lessen the importance for those who observe the new moon crescent visually. However, it is necessary to point out this error in translation, to those who want to prove visual observation using this scripture and word alone, which lack the proper Hebrew definition. The importance of ‘observe’ as shown in Deut. 16:1, is revealed to us that we must, preserve and guard the way, to set the beginning of moons for the Feast Circuit!

CHAPTER FOUR  “The Hebrew 30 Day Moon And Full Moon Count”


Israelite history records and gives us an understanding when the new moon was reckoned, how the new moon was sighted, what they looked for to determine a new moon, who sighted the new moon, and what they did in celebration of the new moon arrival. We will attempt in every way to show this to you in this study, and hopefully give you a better understanding of the New Moon Day! You will see in this study, that our forefathers used strict rules and made every attempt to make sure that the New Moon crescent was sighted according to visual observation, by witnesses who were placed under intense questioning!

The following information is taken from the Encyclopedia Judaica Vol. 12, page 1039:

Notice the following from the above historical accounts:

  • The new moon was not fixed by astronomical calculations.
  • It was solemnly proclaimed after witnesses had testified to the reappearance of the crescent of the moon.
  • On the 30th day of each month, the High Court assembled in Jerusalem to receive the testimony of two reliable witnesses. Then the new moon was sanctified as the beginning of the month. (This shows from one new moon to another, there was a calculation of when to start looking for the next new moon! Also there is no record of a High Court being convened for the Sabbath day observance, where everyone counts 6 days, then rested on the sabbath day.)
  • If the crescent was not sighted on the 30th day, the new moon was automatically celebrated on the 31st day!

What you should be aware of, is the historical records of the Ancient Hebrews indicate they knew when to calculate the New Moon, knowing when it would be in the sky! They had the watchmen prepared for observation on the 30th day, and if it was not seen on the 30th day, it was automatically declared sanctified for the 31st day!

They understood what modern scientist/astronomers know today; that the moon cycles every 29.5 days, every month! They also knew that if it wasn’t sighted on the 30th day, it would most definitely appear on the next day! (Just as the sun rises every day, even if it is cloudy we know that it will rise and set!) Here we read in the Encyclopedia Judaica, that they automatically knew, that, if the crescent wasn’t sighted on the 30th day, the next day was definitely a full moon count or embolismic moon. If it was sighted on the 30th day, this confirmed the beginning of the month and the end of the old month, and a new moon day was declared! When they looked for the crescent on the 30th day the moon was coming out of its dark phase, but there is no reference in scripture for them to go look at the moon during this phase! These facts line up with scriptural records which indicates strongly, that the Hebrew people calculated a 30 day cycle for the sighting of the new moon. We see this shown in I Samuel 20:5, where David and Yahnathan knew the day when the new moon celebration would be declared according to the custom and statute of Israel (they knew the count for the moon).

I Samuel 20:5,18 “And David said to Yahnathan, Behold the new moon is tomorrow...And Yahnathan said to him, Tomorrow is the new moon and you shall be expected; for your seat will be empty.”

Notice that it wasn’t the observance of the new moon that would cause concern or questioning as to why David would be missed (scripture nevers shows him to be an observer/witness for the new moon Sanhedrin High Court), nor was it a 7th day, sabbath of rest. It was his lack of his presence at the celebration of the new moon observance, that would cause questioning, by the King. The New Moon Festival was celebrated as a festival by the Nation of Israel. It is possible that David knew the new moon was going to be tomorrow because he had already been through two days of no moon! There is nothing out of the ordinary for the New Moon Festival to be a 2 or 3 day event and this example only backs up historical records of the way the Ancient Hebrews kept the New Moon festivities.

Yahweh, never instituted the New Moon Day as a Holy Convocation, Sabbath, or commanded Feast day, (except for Feast of Trumpets) or, unless it fell on a 7th day Sabbath. The Ancient Hebrews used this as a cause for celebration, it was instituted and celebrated by custom, by the Hebrew people, because it marked the times for the Sacred Year and the Festivals to come, in that year. They made it a time for celebration, because there was a commandment to offer sacrifices, which were administered by the Priests to Yahweh, on the new moon day and because the Feast days fell within the 1st and 7th moon according to the new moon sighting. The celebration became a precept through implementation of oral custom, according to historical and scriptural records, as there is no command from Yahweh, to have a celebration.

Reading from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia--New Moon, p.524 we find:

We see that the New Moon festival was nothing new under the Mosaic law, but simply regulated by the Law of Yahweh to make sure that the people didn’t worship the moon and profane Yahweh! The New Moon celebration was thought to be a household festival, much like we do today, when we sight the New Moon! We find in historical records that, “there seems to be little ground for founding on these traces of heathen usage, the notion that the Hebrews derived it from the Gentiles...”

In an article about Canaanite Moon Worship we find the following information about Moon Worship in Ancient Times and the Hebrew peoples attempt to wipe it out: The Fall of the Moon City by Dr. David Livingston:

Moon God Chief Canaanite Deity at Conquest

Astronauts have walked on the moon, and we have seen its surface on our TV sets. Yet the moon was regarded with mystery from earliest times. Clever men studied its (and other solar bodies') movements and used the knowledge as magic to control superstitious populaces (possibly the purpose of Stonehenge). Ancient cities were dedicated to moon-worship, having the moon as their patron-god. One such was Ur in Mesopotamia (with "Nanna" as patroness). Even in Mesopotamia, the moon was the chief astral deity at this time, according to Thorkild Jacobsen (The Treasures of Darkness, New Haven: Yale Press, 1976, pp. 121-7).

Early in Canaanite religion, the male moon-god, "Yerach," was the chief god of the pantheon. And the female sun-god, "Shamash," was his cohort. Later, these were changed to Baal and Ashteroth. "To judge from Canaanite place-names of the earliest period, such as Jericho and Beit-Yerach, as well as from Non-Semitic personal and place names of the 2nd millenium BC, the cult of the sun-god and moon-god (or goddess) was at its height in very early times and steadily declined thereafter" (W.F. Albright, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel, p. 92, also p. 83).

In Palestine there seem to have been two cities associated with moon worship, both "facing" east. One was Beit-Yerach ("Temple of the Moon") on the southwest shore of the Sea of Galilee. The other was Jericho with the broad Jordan valley extending eastward. The former ceased to be inhabited by ca. 2000 BC. But Jericho was a leading city in Joshua's time (1400 BC) and likely the seat of moon worship then ("Jericho" coming from yerach, the moon). If the moon was the chief of the Canaanite pantheon, it would be a very strategic city indeed!

John Gray supports this when he notes, "The worship of the Moon (Yerach) and his consort Nikkal (Mesopotamian Nin-gal) and the sun goddess (Shepesh) is attested at Ras Shamra (Ugarit) both in mythological texts and in offering-lists." And even in the Land of Israel, "The basalt figure of a seated god adjacent to a sculpture of hands upraised to a crescent and disc in the Late Bronze Age temple at Hazor probably depicts the Moon-god" (The Canaanites, p. 125).

Following the fall of the Moon-City and its god-king, Israel would have confidence to go and take all the kings of Canaan. They would be "bread" for them (Numbers 14:9). Psalm 2 is a good illustration of God's purposes here in that God, in this Psalm, mocks the rebellion of the heathen. So it will be fitting for Israel to obey the Lord in a manner that will mock the highest and holiest ritual of the Canaanite year at the chief place of worship of their chief god, the Moon.

It seems a marvel that some scholars claim the Hebrews borrowed their concept of God and religion from the Canaanites around them. When they make those claims, one wonders what they think when they read Canaanite literature. To say that Moses (or later "redactors") simply refined the tales of the Canaanites, Egyptians, and Mesopotamians seems farfetched, to say the least.

We can see that Moon Worship was prevalent in the times of the conquest of Canaan, and Jericho seems to be the seat of Moon Worship for the Canaanites. Is it no wonder that it was the 1st city destroyed by Joshua ben Nun upon his entrance into the land! It’s destruction should be an example of the Hebrews loyalty to Yahweh worship, and their detestment towards Canaanite moon worship! While later, history shows the people did fall back into god worship, and moon worship when they had unrighteous leadership. Under the righteous leadership of Mosheh and his successor Joshua, the people obeyed Yahweh and made every attempt to keep their religion pure from the defilement of the god worship which surrounded them. Moon worship had to be stamped out, otherwise, it would interfere in the setting and calculation of the sacred festivals of Yahweh!

Yahweh set the moon in its place for determining the beginning of months for the year, which set the sacred festival circuit, and civil year, but by no means meant for it to be an object of awe or reverence, and placed it in the night sky for reckoning of these times! It’s light was there as the lesser light to shine and bring in the new months and sacred festivals. While there is nothing wrong with a celebration for a new moon to glorify Yahweh for his Feasts, one must remember that the festivities took place on the 30th day, for the sighting of the new moon and would sometimes last for several days, especially if the new moon was not sighted on the 30th day of the month. We can see from historical records that there was definitely a calculated 30 day cycle for observance of the new moon crescent!

We do see examples of the moon also being used in the civil year, as a way to determine employment from month to month. We can see in I Chronicles 27:1-15 a list of the moons and how the duty of the Military Divisions, relayed or rotated, every moon! Here is a few for your reading:

  • verse 1  “In charge of the division of the 1st Moon...”
  • verse 4 “In charge of the division of the 2nd moon...”
  • verse 5 “Over the division of the 3rd moon...”

This is a list of the 12 moons in the civil year, no importance was placed on naming these months, as they were only indicators to set time for each month. It wasn’t until later in history that they were given names for each moon in the civil year!

Reading further about how fundamental oral customs, became written practice, we see the following from the Encyclopedia Judaica Vol. 12, page 1039:

We see the following points in this article:

  • That there were Laws handed down by customs already in practice, fundamental in Hebrew law, which the written Law took for granted because they were being practiced, which allowed the continuation of these customs into the written law. (**editor’s note: the 7th day sabbath count can be considered into this oral custom!)
  • One example of oral custom, was the New Moon celebration and how is was celebrated.
  • The Torah only mentions the New Moon requirements of sacrifice and blowing the trumpets, in order to not have it inferred by some to be a festival to Moon Worship!
  • As a result of Canaanite-Phoenician influence the new moon became an important festival in Israel to such a degree that work and commerce were interrupted! It then became a Hebrew festival losing any pagan characteristics.

History also tells us that those who lived great distances from Jerusalem, always celebrated the 30th day of the month as the New Moon and when informed of its postponement, they celebrated it on the 31st day!

Encyclopedia Judaica Vol. 12, page 1030:

The postponement of the new moon to the 31st day, was considered an Embolismic Moon or Full Moon. We will examine this term later in this study!

Embolismic Moon is defined as: A time when the moon was considered a full moon or full month. If the moon was not seen on the 30th day, then the 31st day was considered the New Moon Day and called an Embolismic month.

Points to consider:

  • The New Moon celebration in all instances was held on the 30th day, depending on when the reliable witnesses actually visibly saw a crescent new moon. In the cases of delay, two festival days were celebrated and the moon was called an embolismic moon or full moon count!
  • By the middle of the 4th century, the sages established a permanent calendar and the public proclamation of the New Moon was discontinued.
  • Work is permitted on the New Moon (other than Feast of Trumpets).

Even though we can see traditions (such as later traditions of announcing the new moon on the preceding sabbath) in some of the sections in this historical record, we also see customs that are not against the Law of Yahweh, nor are they additions/subtractions from the Law, which do no harm to the keeping of the Law of Yahweh. These customs in their enhancement of the Law, emphasis the reason the New Moon, to set the Sacred Year, is significant to the Hebrew people. There is nothing against Yahweh’s Law in celebrating the New Moon, for Yahweh’s feast cycle, and as long as you are not worshiping the Moon, there is nothing wrong with having a celebration to honor Yahweh. The Moon has its place and its order from Yahweh, we must be careful to not place more importance on it, other than what Yahweh created it for! The Israelite History  seems to indicate a celebration of the New Moon Day for its righteous, intended purpose, “to set the Sacred Feast Cycle.”

We have seen that a 30 day cycle was observed diligently by the Hebrew watchman and the Priests who officiated in office in Jerusalem, to set the festivals. More information on the mode of ascertaining the moon can be found in McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, under New Moon:

Reading further we find:

Reading again from, The Temple: Its Ministry and Services by Alfred Edersheim, Chapter 10

The New Moon

"And this brings up yet another difficulty. The Jews calculated the month according to the phases of the moon, each month consisting of either twenty-nine or thirty days, and beginning with the appearance of the new moon. But this opened a fresh field of uncertainty. It is quite true that every one might observe for himself the appearance of a new moon. But this would again partly depend on the state of the weather. Besides, it left an authoritative declaration of the commencement of a month unsupplied. And yet not only was the first of every month to be observed as 'New Moon's Day,' but the feasts took place on the 10th, 15th, or other day of the month, which could not be accurately determined without a certain knowledge of its beginning. To supply this want the Sanhedrim sat in the 'Hall of Polished Stones' to receive the testimony of credible witnesses that they had seen the new moon. To encourage as many as possible to come forward on so important a testimony, these witnesses were handsomely entertained at the public expense. If the new moon had appeared at the commencement of the 30th day--which would correspond to our evening of the 29th, as the Jews reckoned the day from evening to evening--the Sanhedrim declared the previous month to have been one of twenty-nine days, or 'imperfect.' Immediately thereon men were sent to a signal-station on the Mount of Olives, where beacon-fires were lit and torches waved, till a kindling flame on a hill in the distance indicated that the signal had been perceived. Thus the tidings, that this was the new moon, would be carried from hill to hill, far beyond the boundaries of Palestine, to those of the dispersion, 'beyond the river.' Again, if credible witnesses had not appeared to testify to the appearance of the new moon on the evening of the 29th, the next evening, or that of the 30th, according to our reckoning, was taken as the commencement of the new month, in which case the previous month was declared to have been one of thirty days, or 'full.' It was ruled that a year should neither have less than four nor more than eight such full months of thirty days"

One thing to consider in the sighting and observation of the New Moon crescent and the start of the month, was that historical records indicate there were usually two to three days of celebration for the New Moon Day observation and sighting. Which would indicate that the Feast of Trumpets which was set in the 7th moon also could be held as a Feast day celebration for more than one day and as a Sabbath for one day!


Time to the Hebrews is best described in a spiral, much like a DNA strand is spiral. Time has no beginning nor end. It doesn’t go around in a circle. To the Ancient Hebrew reckoning of the days were in such a way, time was continuous. The day starts, then ends, the night begins, then ends, another day starts, another day ends, so on going continually like a spiral all facets of day/night intertwining. There is overlapping of the time periods such as between the evenings, evening, the night, the dark of night, the morning, between the dawn of morning and night, the noonday, the afternoon, day, and evening.

The Hebrew faith, preserves the exalted principles and the cataclysmic events of its history through a structured, well-defined, and specifically timed system of practices that was required of its adherents.  

Some time examples of day or morning, coming before night or evening: (Ex. 13:21, Lev.8:35, Num. 9:21, Deut. 28:66; Joshua 1:8; I Kings 8:59; I Chron. 9:33; Is.60:11; Yeremyah 9:1; 16:13; 33:20,25) Knowing this is essential to understanding the New Moon Day Count! It was not based on a 24 hour day count, or an evening to evening count! Remember the lunar moon had a count of 29 ½ days!

The Hebrew months began at the proclamation of Yahweh! In Exodus chapter twelve we have this decree made by Yahweh.

Exodus 12:2 “This month shall be unto to you the head of months. It shall be the first of the months of the year for you.”

This word month is #2320 which means: new moon. The day of the new moon.

We can see from this verse that the moon of Abib (Deut.16:1) this month, is the head, chief of the months, which sets the rest of the months for the sacred year! (there will be some who will argue that this doesn’t say it is a sacred year, but that shows their lack of Hebrew knowledge in the culture and customs) Nowhere do we find the new moon setting the 7 day work/rest week, or cycle of the weeks. If it did, then how would one set the Feast of Weeks from a lunar sabbath week counting 7 full weeks? We are emphatically shown in Deut. 16:1, that the moon of Abib, set the year, not the weeks! In this case, the sacred year of the Feasts, was the highlight of the year. Typically the solar year exceeds the lunar year by approx. 11 days. The Hebrew people counted the year by the months (moons), not by days! If they counted the year by days then they would have had this time period of extra days every year!

CHAPTER FIVE “New Moon Sanctification Was the Responsibility of the Sanhedrin High Court”


It is highly recommended that one reads Maimonides treatise on the sanctification of the New Moon.

In his Treatise on the New Moon, Maimonides writes concerning the history of the New Moon Day:

Each month the moon disappears and becomes invisible for about two days, more or less, for about one day at the end of the old month, before it reaches its conjunction with the sun, and for about one day with its conjunction with the sun. Then it reappears in the evening in the west and this night, on which it becomes visible in the west after its disappearance, is the beginning of the month. From this day on, 29 days were counted, and if the new crescent appeared on the night of the 30th day, this 30th day was the 1st day of the new month. If however, it did not appear on that night, the 30th day would belong to the old month and the 31st day would be the 1st day of the new month. One thing that was certain in the count for the month, was that a lunar month never lasted more than 30 days! The authority over the observation of the crescent (and the consequent proclamation of the New Moon Day) was given not to everyone, unlike the sabbath day, with respect to which everyone counts 6 days and rests on the 7th day-but only to the court! The day sanctified and proclaimed by the Court as the beginning of the month was New Moon Day. For it is said of Exodus 12:2 “This month shall be unto you...” that is to say, accepting or rejecting evidence concerning this matter is put into your hands.

Just as the astronomers who discern the positions and motions of the stars engage in calculation, the Hebrew Court too, used to study, investigate, and perform mathematical calculations in order to find out whether or not it would be possible for the new crescent to be visible in its proper time, which is the night of the 30th day. If the members of the court found that the new moon might be visible, they were obliged to be in attendance at the courthouse for the whole 30th day and be on the watch for the arrival of witnesses. If witnesses did arrive, they were duly examined and tested, and if their testimony appeared trustworthy, this day was sanctified as the New Moon Day. If the new crescent did not appear and no witnesses arrived, this day was the 30th day of the old month, which they called an embolismic (intercalated, full) month. If however, the members of the court found by calculation that the new moon could not possibly be seen, they were not obliged to be in attendance the 30th day or to wait for the arrival of the witnesses. If witnesses nonetheless did appear and testified that they had seen the new crescent, it was certain that they were false witnesses, or that a phenomenon resembling the new moon had been seen by them through the clouds, while in reality it was not the new crescent at all! That is how sure they were of their mathematical calculations!

Scripture made it incumbent upon the court to discover by calculation whether or not the new moon might be visible, to examine the witnesses, and then to sanctify the new moon and send out messengers to inform the whole community which day was to be the New Moon Day, so that the people would know on which days the holiday would fall. For it is said:

Leviticus 23:37 “These are the appointed seasons of Yahweh, which you shall proclaim to be Holy Convocations.”

Exodus 13:10 “And you shall keep this ordinance in its season, from days to days.”

Please notice carefully what we just read about the counting for the lunar cycle new moon day: “if the new crescent appeared on the night of the 30th day, this 30th day old moon,  was also the 1st day count of the new month. Also, “SCRIPTURE MADE IT INCUMBENT UPON THE COURT TO DISCOVER BY CALCULATION WHETHER OR NOT THE NEW MOON MIGHT BE VISIBLE! What you see here is a count of 30 days (old moon) and 1st day (new moon), counted from the same day! Keep this in mind as we continue this study and let’s count like a Hebrew!!!

The New Moon was set by the Sanhedrin High Court for the Nation of Israel, and it was not each individual person’s responsibility to decide how to keep the new month or the months, that set the Sacred Feast cycle! This responsibility fell on the high court of the Sanhedrin, appointed, to verify and declare the beginning of months for the sacred year. As we have read, there can be no correlation between the sabbath day count and the new moon count, because the sabbath day was something that every man was responsible to count and to know, the sabbath day was not set by a Sanhedrin High Court! No matter where a person lived, it was their responsibility to know the count to sabbath, which was not according to the Lunar New Moon, but to the six day work week that every Hebrew followed continuously, working six days, and resting on the Sabbath. That count was kept by the whole community and nation and didn’t change according to the month. The New Moon was determined by the High Court, not the individual, because it was their responsibility to make sure the nation followed the Feast of Yahweh accurately and in unity. The Sabbath was determined by the individual, not a High Court! There is no historical records that I have found that show the Sabbath day being determined by the sighting of the New Moon, nor the 7th day Sabbath day being pronounced by the High Court other than Trumpets. Only the Feast of Trumpets new moon day, was considered a Sabbath rest day, by command of Yahweh and was set by the High Court!

Today the Jewish people set the Feast according to a fixed calendar, based on a fixed preset, 30/31 day lunar/solar calculation. Their reasoning is that there is no more High Court which has witnesses to sight the moon, and set the beginning of months. History shows they forsook the lunar observation of the crescent in the mid 4th century. This should give more reason to the Jews and sacred name believers to come together in unity and restore reliable witnesses, who will confirm the sighting of the crescent moon to count the months for the sacred year cycle. The question that needs to be addressed, on what day do you count the days for the next moon cycle? On the day side, (30th day) the witnesses were looking for the New Moon crescent to be seen before, or after, sunset. History and mathematical counting seems to indicate that the count to the next moon begins on day 30, when the witnesses are set out to look for the moon and sight it. When the moon is sighted, at evening, the count would start at that day for the next new moon. This day would also be the first day of the count to the next month and the last day of the previous month! The first day would be the day side portion of the new moon observation, the second day would be the next day of the New Moon day, which was counted day 1, at sunset the night before. If it is not counted this way the count to the next moon would throw off the next lunar new moon day count, for the Crescent New Moon observation. If you don’t believe this, then I urge you to try it out for yourself!

Once more, remember, the watchmen were set out on the 30th day, never before, and if the New Moon was not sighted, they would confirm automatically that the next day (31st day) was automatically New Moon day, and there was no need for observation! This was because the lunar moon NEVER LASTED FOR MORE THAN 30 DAYS! This is a scientific, physical, and mathematical certainty! The Hebrew High Court were experts in these types of calculations, based on crescent moon observation, to reset the count to the next moon! However, they did not depend solely on calculations, they still had to go and observe the Moon in obedience to the Law of Yahweh in keeping the Feast at their appointed time. Yahweh could make the moon appear on the 30th or 31st day and they didn’t know for sure until visual observation! The calculations were usually correct, but Yahweh never intended for them to base the New Moon Day count, solely on mathematical calculations!

This has been their mistake since the 4th century, by forsaking the crescent observation! However the Jewish people today who are in obedience to the Rabbi’s will not be held guilty, if they are obedient to the teachers who sit in Mosheh’s seat today and don’t know better! It will be the teachers, (Rabbi’s) who are held responsible for the administering of the Law concerning the New Moon setting for the Feast cycle, especially if they know the truth! Let’s recap:

  • The New Moon day was calculated by mathematical calculation in order to set the watchman/witnesses out on the proper day for observation of the crescent moon. We have read in previous accounts and history records that the same day (30th day), they sent out the reliable witnesses to observe and look for the crescent moon which would be calculated to be seen that evening to declare a New Moon Day. If it wasn’t seen that evening (the 30th day), then automatically the count towards the next month was set from the 31st day, called a full moon count! The Crescent Moon showed the light coming out of the darkness, which would line up with scripture which shows Yahweh/Yahshua as the light which brings us out of darkness, to bring light to mankind! Keep in mind the earth is never in complete darkness!
  • The sighting of the Crescent Moon at evening, marked the end of the old month, and the 1st day of the new month! It was the first day of light for the New lunar month count, which begins in light and ends in light!

So today, when the Jews follow the Rabbinical council in Israel (as set by the Hillel II method), or sacred name groups follow reliable witnesses, who confirm a crescent sighting. Both groups would be following teachers and witnesses who are doing the best that they know of in their sanctification of the Law and no blood would be upon your head for following the way you have been taught! However, it is incumbent upon the true believer to study to show themselves approved and to prove all things. We are required to follow the truth that Yahweh reveals! It is important for us who profess to be teachers of the Law, that we be able to stand on sound principles of the studies we undertake, and provide sound, solid proofs to the best of our ability that we find and reveal to the biblical student. I think we will find that no matter how much evidence is provided, people are going to follow their own understanding in this matter. While I am not advocating that we should agree with unsound principles. I am stating that it is not my intention to judge anyone as the Apostle Shaul stated, “condemn no man in the keeping of a holy day, new moon, or sabbaths.” Keep this in mind as you continue in this study.

Until a Sanhedrin court is established to reinstate the Oral customs handed down from the Ancients, concerning the High Court ruling in sanctification of the new moon day, according to Yahweh’s Law, we, according to the Law, are committed to following the best course of action, according to TRUTH, concerning this matter and do as the High Court did concerning the responsibilities of this ordinance. To do it any other way, would not be following customs of this statute! If one looks for the New Moon crescent, and keeps it according to what he sees in the sky, it will be Yahweh who judges that individual based on their administration and adherence to the statute. Keep in mind that it was never recorded in the history of the Hebrew people, that it was an individual’s responsibility to establish the New Moon Day, especially to set Yahweh’s Feast Cycle! Today, we are in Babylon, and because there is no High Court, it is now left up to each person to observe the new moon day in order to keep the Feasts of Yahweh. One thing that we can be sure of is you still need to have at least two reliable witnesses to verify the New Moon Day, according to the Law, where is states, “by the mouth of two or three witnesses a matter is established.” *Editor’s note: the author of this study, is a standing member of the Israel New Moon Society, who are trying to bring back the Ancient ways in determining the New Moon Day.

If the sacred name groups or any communities of believers are going to follow the customs/precepts/laws of the ancient Hebrews, they should be considering in establishing reliable witnesses to establish the New Moon Day, as we have seen recorded and history indicates by our forefathers examples! There are no historical records to indicate that the High Court set the lunar new month, or Feast cycle, by a dark moon, so why would we want to follow setting the New Moon Cycle by a dark moon, when there is no historical or biblical records of the Hebrew people doing such a practice? Food for thought! Heaven and earth declare Yahweh’s word and we must follow it!

Deuteronomy 4:26I call heaven and earth as witnesses against you this day that you will quickly perish from the land that you are crossing the Jordan to possess. You will not live there long but will certainly be destroyed.”

CHAPTER SIX “The Monthly Count and its reckoning with the 7 day Week Count; Exodus 16th Chapter an example of both counts


We see in the holy scriptures that the days, months, and years were kept from the beginning of creation. There is a biblical record of the months being counted and time recorded by the moons.

Genesis 7:11 “In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.”

Genesis 8:14 “And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried.”

We see that the month had to be counted from a first moon, in order to be recorded here as a second month, and the days were counted from the beginning of the month (moon) to set the count to the next sighting of the moon, which set the next monthly count. It is a proven fact that the lunar month count started at day one and never went past 30 days in sighting the crescent moon. Had the sabbath day, which is recorded as a seven day cycle, been established by the new moon, then would they have not recorded, regarding the 17th day, (the 2nd sabbath of the month, the 3rd day)? We can see from these, and many other scriptures, that the days were counted from one new moon to another to keep count of the month. (1-30 or 31)  Nowhere in scripture, where the days number the month, make any mention of the weekly sabbath being a daily count from the New Moon day, other than that which was established in the Law, which we see is a seven day cycle. When we see the days numbered as we see here in Genesis and elsewhere in scripture, we know that they are recorded from the new month day, because the days were numbered, starting from the 1st day of the month, but never a mention of the weeks! Within each day, of every month, whenever the sabbath day is mentioned, it is defined as such (7th day of rest, sabbath day), not by the numbering of the monthly days, (eighth, fifteenth, twenty second, twenty ninth, etc..),

A Month of Days

Genesis 29:14 “And Laban said to him, Surely thou [art] my bone and my flesh. And he abode with him the space 3117 of a month.”

The word space is #3117 which means: the day; a month of days.

We see here that Yaaqob stayed with Laban a month of days, which we have seen is 30 days! Nothing about any weeks or 4 sabbaths of days. We can see here in Strongs definition, the space of the month are counted by the days within that month, not by the weeks.

When the children of Israel came into the Wilderness of Sin, we find they murmured against Mosheh and Aaron. We also see numbered days within the month mentioned separate from the six day work week and seventh day of rest!

Exodus 16:1 “Then they journeyed from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came to the Wilderness of Sin, between Elim and Sinai, on the 15th day of the Second Moon after they departed from the land of Egypt.”

Notice that the days are numbered, from the New Moon day, in this case the fifteenth day! This is not giving us an indication of the work/rest week! Why didn’t they say on the Sabbath day if the 15th day was a sabbath day? But we do see this work week mentioned in this chapter!

Exodus 16:5On the sixth day they shall prepare what they bring in, and it shall be twice as much as they gather on previous days.”

Notice this 6th day is not part of the 15th day count of the month, but a work week count which was always counted by 7 days! The scriptures state they came in on the 15th day, so are we to assume that in verse 5 this is the next month? This is the same month, (2nd month) but not the sixth day of the month, but the sixth day of the work week!

Exodus 16:22, 23, 25,26On the sixth day gathered twice as much, two omers for each person, and the rulers of the congregation came and told Mosheh. Then he said to them; This is what Yahweh has commanded: Tomorrow is to be a day of rest, a Holy Sabbath to Yahweh. So bake what you will bake today and boil what you will boil, and save what is leftover and keep it until morning. Then Mosheh said; Eat it today, because today is a Sabbath to Yahweh. Today you will not find it on the ground. Six days you shall gather it, but on the Seventh Day, The Sabbath, there will be none!”

Notice the points of this scripture:

  • On the sixth day they gathered twice as much manna, this is referring to the work week count, not the lunar monthly count!
  • Tomorrow, the 7th day, was a day of rest, a Holy Sabbath day to Yahweh!
  • Six days they were to gather it, but not on the seventh day. (another reference to show the work week count, not the monthly, daily count!)

The whole point of this trial of gathering food, was to test the children of Israel, to see whether they were going to follow the work week cycle, working six days and resting on the seventh day, and keep the Law of the Sabbath Day! There is no mention of the people resting on the  8th, 15th, and 22nd day of the month, but instead we find:

Exodus 16:4,30 “Then Yahweh said to Mosheh; I will rain bread from heaven for you. The people are to go out and gather enough for each day, that I may test them to see whether they will walk in My Law, or not! So the people rested on the Seventh Day.

The count of the days in this story of the manna, concerning the work week, and the seventh day of rest, is not in reference to the lunar moon daily count, (verse 1), to set the work/rest week. Exodus 16:1 records what day of the lunar moon (month) count they entered the Wilderness of Sin, it does not record that they rested on the 22nd day of the month. But it does show they rested on the 7th day of the work/rest week, indicating a difference between the lunar daily count and sabbath day count!

We can see this example of recording time, with no reference to what day of the week it was, in many documents of historical events. The Declaration of Independence is a fine example where the day, month, and year are recorded for future prosperity, but not what day of the week it was!

In Congress, July 4, 1776...”

We see in this document, that the importance was on the day, month, and the year. Not necessarily what day of the week it was, (monday, tuesday, wednesday, etc...) In fact, I would wager most Americans don’t even know what day of the week this document was signed! Don’t you think if the name of the day of the week was important, they would have made sure to put the name of the day of the week on the document!

In the case of Exodus 16, we see that the timing of the Israelites entry into the Wilderness of Sin, is recorded for future generations in this same manner for us to remember:

  • On the fifteenth day of the Second Moon, after they departed from the land of Egypt.” This date does not tell us what day of the work week it was, (Hebrew time: 1,2,3,4,5,6, Sabbath day) as this was not relevant; but instead what was important for us to know was:
  • (1.) the day of the lunar monthly (moon) count (15th),
  • (2.) what month (2nd Moon),
  • (3.) and the time period of when they left Egypt (1st year of deliverance)!

CHAPTER SEVEN “Feast of Trumpets, A Sabbath New Moon Day


The scriptures that speak of the New Moon, Sabbaths, and Feast Days are giving us an indication of their importance and they are mentioned together many times, because they have a common thread. The 1st New Moon set the beginning of moons for the Sacred Year Feast Cycle, which was to know when to keep the proper time for the Feast Sabbaths, and Feast days. The Lunar Moon Count of days are intertwined with the 7th day Sabbath and six day work week, but separate in their count, independent of each other!

In Leviticus the 23rd Chapter we see a list of the Feast days and Holy Convocations of Yahweh! There is no indication in this chapter that the New Moon day: is a Holy Convocation (other than the Feast of Trumpets), a Sabbath day (other than Feast of Trumpets) or used to set the count for the days of the work/rest week, in order, to set the weekly Sabbath day!

Leviticus 23:2-4 “Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: Concerning the Feasts of Yahweh which you shall proclaim to be Holy Convocations; These are My Feasts. Six days shall work be done, but the Seventh Day is a Sabbath of solemn rest, a Holy Convocation. You shall not do no work on it. It is the Sabbath of Yahweh in all your dwellings. These are the Feasts of Yahweh; His Holy Convocations, which you shall proclaim at their appointed seasons.”

If one pays close attention to the days of the Lunar Month daily count in scripture, they are shown to be a day count, (14th day, 15th day, 16th day, etc...), not a weekly count. You will notice that these numbering of days of the month, are never mentioned as days to number or count the week, or for use in counting the seventh day, sabbath of rest! They are never shown to be numbering the six day work week either, as a count in the month! The work week, six days, which lead up to the seventh day rest, or Sabbath Day, is always numbered by a 7 day work/rest cycle count in scripture! ALWAYS!!! Here is some scriptures that verify this statement. (Gen. 2:2,3; Ex. 16:26; 20:8-11; 23:12; 31:15; 35:2; Lev. 23:3; Deut. 5:12-15)

FEAST OF TRUMPETS: The Days of the New Moon Festival

We find that the only New Moon Feast day that was established as a sanctified and declared a Sabbath Day and Holy Convocation, by Yahweh, was the Feast of Trumpets!

Leviticus 23:24 “Speak to the children of Israel saying: In the Seventh Moon, on the First of the Moon, you shall have a Sabbath, a Memorial of Blowing of Trumpets; a Holy Convocation.”

Numbers 29:1On the First Day of the Seventh Moon you shall have a holy convocation. You shall do no work of service. It shall be a day of blowing of the trumpets to you.”

In his book The Jewish Festivals, Rabbi S. M. Lehrman notes that:

"The Bible which usually gives the reason for every observance, does not do so in the case of Rosh Hashanah [New year or Feast of Trumpets], deeming the spiritual well-being of each individual too obvious to require comment. To subsequent teachers we owe the picture of a Day of Judgment on which all mortals pass before the Heavenly Throne to give an account of their deeds and to receive the promise of mercy."

The blowing of the trumpets was understood to be a call to repent and prepare oneself to stand trial before Yahweh who would execute His judgment ten days later on the Day of Atonement. The importance of the sacred feast moons are indicated by the fact that the Hebrew people anticipated its arrival on the first day of the month (new moon) through short blasts of the shofar (Num 10:10; Ps 81:3). These short blasts were an anticipation of the long alarm blasts to be sounded on the new moon of the seventh month.

Feast of Trumpets, is the only commanded Feast day of Yahweh that is set by a New Moon day, and is the 7th New Moon day which is a sanctified Sabbath day, a Holy Convocation, by command of Yahweh! However, this does not mean that a 7th day Sabbath, could not fall on a new moon day! The 7th moon was also the last counted month for the sacred year, when the harvest would be gathered in! We find that there was no servile work to be done on this day!

Leviticus 23:25 “Ye shall do no servile 5656 work [therein]: but ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto Yahweh.”

The word servile is #5656 which means: labour, work.

Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon, GESENIUS, BDB, translated by Edward Robinson, page 715, shows this word to mean: you shall do no laborious work!

Leviticus 23:24 “Speak unto the children of Israel, saying , In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation.”

We have read that in the weekly cycle, one was to labor six days and rest on the seventh day. The sabbath as referenced here in Lev. 23:24 is not according to the number of the work week, day 7, but to the cessation of labor, as on the sabbath day (7th day), a sabbath observation!

Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon, GESENIUS, BDB, translated by Edward Robinson, page 992, we find the definition of sabbath, clarified.

Notice this sabbath is a sabbath observance, just like the sabbaths on the 1st and 8th day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev.23:39). This is not a weekly sabbath, as a 7th day count from the work week. Or in other words, the Feast of Trumpets which was on the 7th New Moon Day, did not start the count for the weekly sabbath day! In fact, as we have seen from historical records, the New Moon Day could be celebrated two, sometimes three days. It is not impractical to keep the Feast of Trumpets celebration for more than one day, as this was the custom for the New Moon Festivals, so therefore, Feast of Trumpets would be in most cases, be a two day Feast, but only a 1 day Sabbath observance! Once the crescent moon was sighted, that day was sanctified by the Sanhedrin High Court to became the Sabbath observance day for the Feast of Trumpets! The count to the next moon was done the day the watchmen sighted the crescent moon, which also verified the last day of the old month! We will see this later in this study, by looking at the lunar counting for the new moon day! Remember: the lunar month never lasted more than 30 days!

Psalm 81:3: Blowing the Trumpet At the New Moon/Full Moon

There is a scripture in Psalm 81:3 KJV, or 81:4 in the Hebrew bible, where we are shown that the Psalmist declares ‘to blow the shofar on the new moon, at the full moon’. This was always dependent on the day the new moon was sighted, so the full moon (a full moon count) would fall on the 1st day of the Lunar Month count. There is no Law of Yahweh that tells us that we are to look for a ‘fully lit moon’ to set the Feast, or to look for the full lit moon to set any Feast of Yahweh in His laws. However, the Psalmist gives an indication that there was a precept instituted from the Exodus to commemorate Yahseph’s day of entry into Egypt and the children of Israel’s exit from Egypt, which could be speaking of the Feast of Passover! Let’s examine this possibility!

Psalm 81:3 “Blow the trumpet at the new moon, at the full moon, on our feast day.”

We see the word full moon is word #2320: means full moon. In Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon, GESENIUS, BDB, translated by Edward Robinson, page 490, we find the following definition for Psalm 81:4 (KJV Psalm 81:3)

Notice the definition is: full moon, at the new moon! There is no hidden meanings, and contrary to most interpreters, it does not mean covering, as in head dress or cap, or tiara of moon god, as that would be an Arabic/Assyrian definition, which, as we see in Gesenius above, is of dubious origin! Also you must always keep in mind, that the moon is always covered in darkness! It does not have its own light source! The moon depends upon the sun, for its light! The moon only reflects the sun’s light to the earth!

There are some schools of lunar, dark, new moon teaching, who reveal in their dissertations, that this word here, “full moon” is defined as: covering-meaning no light. I can see how this interpretation could be misunderstood by those schooled in elementary Hebrew. However, a more educated Hebrew language scholar, would be able to see the misinterpretations of this word, and rebut any argument to the contrary. We will show you here from recognized scholarly Hebrew Lexicons, that the definition is clear enough that anyone should be able to see that ‘full moon’, is not referring to the darkness of the moon, but to the full moon count, at the new moon, or that it possibly could be the full moon at the Feast of Passover and but it is not the DARK MOON! The Psalmist was saying, blow the Trumpet at the new moon, at the full moon, on our Feast Day! So what Feast day was he referring to in this Passage? Let’s examine Psalm 81:3 KJV and address two schools of scholarly debate.

The word feast, as found in Psalm 81:3, is word #H2282 which means: festival, feast day.

In Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon, BDB, translated by Edward Robinson, pages 290,291 we find the following definition for this word, ‘feast’!

We see here that the word is used as a Festival gathering, feast, pilgrim feast, probably the full moon of Passover!

This commentary from the Lexicon states “probably.” Let’s see if we can verify this information from scripture.

Psalm 81:4,5 “For it is a statute for Israel, an ordinance of the Elohim of Jacob. He established it for a testimony in Yahseph. When he went throughout the land of Egypt.I heard a language that I did not know.”

The word statute is word #2706 which means: that which is established or definite. A custom observed, as though it was a Law!

Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon, GESENIUS, BDB, translated by Edward Robinson, pages 349, show this word ‘statute,’ means: law of a festival.

We know that the children entered the land of Egypt at the 1st moon of Abib, because we are shown they left Egypt, at the same season, that they entered the land of Egypt.

Exodus 12:40,41Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of Yahweh went out from the land of Egypt.”

We have seen in Psalm 81:3, that there was a custom (statute) to blow the trumpet on the New Moon leading to the Feast days.

We are told in the scriptures that the blowing of the trumpet is a custom (statute) to commemorate this event at the New moon and other days of gladness! This statute is not binding on everyone! If that were so, we would be guilty of breaking the Law of Yahweh, if we didn’t blow the shofar at the New Moon, at the Feast of Passover, or any day of gladness! We have been shown that there were reliable witnesses, who were responsible for the sighting of the New Moon day, and the Sanhedrin High Court was responsible to get the sanctification and declaration out to the people! The entire calendar was dependent upon these declarations; without the declarations, there would be no way of knowing when holidays were supposed to occur. We see in scripture that there were assigned people, the Priests, the sons of Aaron, who blew the trumpet for several occasions, one occasion was to commemorate the solemn Feasts, which included the statute to remember the Exodus, on the Feast of Passover and also to bring in the 1st moon of Abib, which set the Feast Circuit of Yahweh!

Numbers 10:2-10Make thee two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them: that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps. And when they shall blow with them, all the assembly shall assemble themselves to thee at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. And if they blow but with one trumpet, then the princes, which are heads of the thousands of Israel, shall gather themselves unto thee. When ye blow an alarm, then the camps that lie on the east parts shall go forward. When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey: they shall blow an alarm for their journeys. But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm. And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow with the trumpets; and they shall be to you for an ordinance for ever throughout your generations. And if ye go to war in your land against the enemy that oppresseth you, then ye shall blow an alarm with the trumpets; and ye shall be remembered before the Lord your God, and ye shall be saved from your enemies. Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your Elohim.”

Numbers 10:10 New Living TranslationBlow the trumpets in times of gladness, too, sounding them at your annual festivals and at the beginning of each month. And blow the trumpets over your burnt offerings and peace offerings. The trumpets will remind Yahweh your Elohim of his covenant with you. I am Yahweh your Elohim."

Yechetzqel (Ezekiel) 33:6 “But if the watchman sees the sword coming and does not blow the trumpet to warn the people and the sword comes and takes someone’s life, that person’s life will be taken because of their sin, but I will hold the watchman accountable for their blood.”

I Chronicles 23:28,30-32The duty of the Levites was to help Aaron's descendants in the service of the temple of Yahweh: to be in charge of the courtyards, the side rooms, the purification of all sacred things and the performance of other duties at the house of Yahweh. They were also to stand every morning to thank and praise Yahweh. They were to do the same in the evening, and whenever burnt offerings were presented to Yahweh on Sabbaths and at New Moon festivals and at appointed feasts. They were to serve before Yahweh regularly in the proper number and in the way prescribed for them. And so the Levites carried out their responsibilities for the Tent of Meeting, for the Holy Place and, under their brothers the descendants of Aaron, for the service of the temple of Yahweh.”


So what did the Psalmist mean by “Blow the trumpet at the new moon, at the full moon, on our feast day?” Let’s take another look at full moon, new moon, to get another Hebrew viewpoint and a linguistic understanding, of what the Ancient Hebrews knew about the new moon/full moon and blowing the trumpets at this festival day, according to the meaning of the words in context to the New Moon.

Today, we live in a Roman/Greco inspired society that determines time and words in abstract and in a totally different thought process than the Ancient Hebrews did. They understood their language and today we are challenged with determining what they meant through interpretation of the Hebrew words, through definition. There are those who have given us understanding through Hebrew books which define the words. If we reject the knowledge handed down by those whom Yahweh has given wisdom to help in understanding the ancient paths of the Hebrew language, then what hope is for anyone to understand what is written? Keep this in mind as you approach studies such as this one! I, like you, have to rely on history, the ancient sages, and the Hebrew tools necessary to figure out complex doctrinal matters where there is a difference of opinion based on interpretation.

So let’s examine this word full moon! In Compendius and Complete Hebrew Chaldee Lexicon to The Old Testament, GESENIUS, from Dietrich, page 301, we find the following information about ‘full moon’:

We see here that the full moon is defined here as marking off time! As we have read, the Lunar month was counted off 29 days, from the last old moon, in its monthly cycle, to the fullness of the moon cycle, and then the watchmen set out to observe the New Moon Crescent sighting on the 30th day! What we see in this definition, is that full moon means, a full lunar moon cycle, named from its marking off time, which would make it a full counted moon, or full moon, and also would make it the new moon day. As we have previously read on the day of the sighting, if the crescent wasn’t seen, the next day was automatically a new moon or full moon, (embolismic moon)! The trumpet would then be blown to declare a New Moon Day, after it was sanctified by the Sanhedrin High Court, in obedience to the statute, in the Law!

We can also verify in the Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon by Benjamin Davidson, page 386, that this word ‘full moon’, means: ‘the new moon.

In The Etymological Dictionary of the Biblical Hebrew page 120, we find the root word definition of ‘full moon’ to mean:

Notice here that the root word means: Separate: designating time, throne elevated above populace.  

One more piece of scholarly evidence is found in The Hebraic Tongue Restored by Fabre de Olivet, page 374, under the root word, KAF-SAMEKH, means: every idea of accumulation, enumeration:

Further evidence of the full moon count, in combination to the crescent new moon day, as shown in scripture, recorded in Psalm 81:3,4 is found in Compendius and Complete Hebrew Chaldee Lexicon to The Old Testament, GESENIUS, from Dietrich, page 197, for the word, ‘new moon’:

Notice this is showing the new moon, i.e., the time from new moon to new moon, i.e. a full month (moon); a month old! Notice also it is also mentioned as perhaps, a sharp sword, (the new moon crescent as a sharp sword!)  Any scriptures come to mind?

Hebrews 4:12For the word of Yahweh is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.”

Reading from Faussett’s Bible Dictionary, MONTH, we find more information on ‘full moon’:

We find that the word ‘new moon’, is defined in the Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon by Benjamin Davidson, page 249, as “new moon--a month of days”, or full moon’, which corroborates with the above referenced Gesenius Hebrew Lexicon.

We know that the times and seasons were appointed in the beginning from Yahweh’s instruction and command. The scriptures give us the seven day weekly count, as well as the new moon setting of the sacred and civil year, all within context of the Law of Yahweh. We can see above at all these definitions, the Hebrews terminology of “full moon” is different than the English terminology of “full moon.” Let’s examine the word ‘light’ and see if we can come to a better understanding of its meaning within context of the scriptures.

CHAPTER EIGHT “Let there be Light; the Command of Yahweh


In Genesis 1:3, we are told that Elohim created “light”! We see light is mentioned to us in the scriptures, so that we can see that it is Elohim who gave us this light, by His command! Throughout the creation process we see that there was the command of “let be”. This shows the power and authority that comes from the Creator to the creation!

Genesis 1:1,2 In the beginning Elohim created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of Elohim was hovering over the waters.

Genesis 1:2-5 NIV “And Elohim said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. Elohim saw that the light was good, and he separated the light from the darkness. Elohim called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” And there was evening, and there was morning—the first day.”

Reading from the Interlinear Bible by Jay Green we find the following on the words “let be”:

If you notice the command in Genesis 1:3; “let be” is shown to be the hebrew word, יהיyod-heh-yod!

But yet in the Strong’s Hebrew Concordance, page 34, the word, “let be” is word #1961 which is shown to be:  הָיָה  heh-yod-heh!

What we see here in word #1961: is found to be in the 'qal' verb stem; imperfect; as jussive; jussive in form or meaning; 3rd person; masculine; singular; X apocopapated suffix. In plain English this means: the command of Yahweh is not past tense, it can start that day, but it doesn’t predate the command. Yahweh gave the command of light, but he did not command what the light was, or was to do, other than, the command is for the light, to come into being. That doesn’t mean it never existed, it just means it was hidden from the darkness and called into being, by command. Darkness was not created first, because we are shown it “became, without form, empty” into darkness! What is interesting to note about this verse is that the words, ‘without form’, don’t seem to be indicating obscurity from illumination of light beams, but desolation.

The word without form is #8414 which means: wasteness, that which is wasted; laid waste.

In, A Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, GESENIUS, by Julius Fuerst, page 1460 we find:

Yahweh, who we know is ‘light’, created the heavens and the earth; would it not be safe to believe that there was light first, being that the creator was the ‘light’ and is the ‘light’ and was there to create everything? We see in the text that the earth became (let be) #1961, by the command, into desolateness. It was allowed, by command!

I Yahchanan (John) 1:5 NIV This is the message we have heard from him and declare to you: Yahweh is light; in him there is no darkness at all.”

These are the words of truth! Yahweh is light and there is no darkness in Him at all! Why would anyone think that darkness was created first? Yahweh is light and therefore, there was always light, first, and there will always be light, even if there was no sun! As long as there is Yahweh, there is light! We depend on the light from the sun and the moon, not it’s darkness!

Reading from the Chumash with Rashi we find the following commentary on Genesis 1 concerning the creation in at the beginning:

We can see from Rashi’s commentary and his explanation of the Hebrew language, that the order of the acts of creation are not pointed out in Genesis 1:1,2 in detail, the details come later by command!

There are some who say that darkness came first, then light, and that is one reason they explain that the new moon day count, must be set from a dark moon. But we can see that this theory does not hold truth in the correct understanding of the Hebrew language! Therefore, there shouldn’t be any assumptions that darkness came first, just because there is no mention of light first! Let us look further at the word light!

The word light as found in Genesis 1:3, is word #216 which means: light.

On earth we have three lights, that give us a source of light. The sun, the sun reflecting off the moon, and the stars in the night sky. This is also confirmed in the scriptures.

Genesis 1:14, 16And Elohim said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years. And Elohim made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.

We see that through command the light did its job, on the day it was told to do it.

The word translated luminaries is word #3974 which means: light; used of the sun and moon.  
Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon, BDB, translated by Edward Robinson, page 22  shows the word luminary, to be the light of the sun and moon.

So the light that is commanded in Genesis 1:14, is the light from the sun, and the moon. They separate the day from the night, and are set in place to mark the days, months, and years. The lights set a space of time, as appointed and defined.

We have seen that the seven day week sets the weekly count, the lunar new moon day sets the month and the months within the year, and the sun sets the days, separating day from night. Keep in mind the earth always gets its light from the sun, moon, and the stars! It is never in complete darkness, but is always in the greater light or the lesser light! The luminaries were given their command to do their specific job and the order was expounded to us throughout the scriptures. It should be clear that in the beginning there was light, and these lights were given orders. To this day we can see this order! Hebrew history shows us that the High Court looked for a crescent moon to establish the New Moon Day, in order to set the Feasts and the monthly count. These months also were counted to set Yahweh’s Sacred Year Cycle and civil year.

The crescent moon looks very much like a sword in the evening sky, it is a fine sliver of light that appears after several days of darkness upon the earth in which the moon is in a dark stage. In biblical symbols, the sword (which the crescent moon looks like in the evening sky) symbolically, represents war, or the Word of Yahweh!

Hebrews 4:12For the word of Yahweh is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.

Exodus 15:3Yahweh is a man of war: Yahweh is his name.”

This is just some information for those who are interested in the symbology in the scripture which can parallel, with the creation.

CHAPTER NINE “Yahweh’s New Moon to Set the Months; The Lesser Light; Shabbat Rosh Chodesh; Psalm 104:19; Yeremyah 31:35

PSALM 104:19

Psalm 104:19 is used by some interpreters, to point out that this scripture shows the moon sets the seasons, or sets the sabbath week! However, we must put this scripture in context with others, of what season it is that the Psalmist is concerned with, concerning those who worship Yahweh!

Psalm 104:19 from the NEB, Oxford, 1970 edition:

The word season, which is translated ‘measure the year’ here in the NEB translation, is word #4150, which means: a set time; a point of time.

Reading from Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon, GESENIUS, BDB, translated by Edward Robinson, page 417, concerning the word, ‘season’:

We can see that the word ‘season’, is defined as: appointed time, place, meeting; but further definition as used in Psalm 104:19 shows this to mean, “he made the moon for sacred seasons.” We have seen that the sacred year or season to worship Yahweh is laid out between 7 months, as we saw in Exodus 12:2 the moon of Abib, sets the beginning of moons in the year. After the 7th month, at the end of the Feast of Tabernacles or Last Great Day, there are no more sacred festivals of Yahweh, until the next new moon of Abib is seen in the springtime of the year. We know that the sacred year begins at the moon of Abib! We proved this earlier in this study, that in Deuteronomy 16:1, the children of Israel were to “guard” this month, in order to start the Feast Circuit of Yahweh.

The translation by the NEB bible, has it correctly translated to show the moon measures the sacred year! There are 7 appointed times within the sacred year, Feast of Passover, Unleavened Bread, Pentecost, Trumpets, Day of Atonement, Tabernacles, Last Great Day. There is a 7th day Sabbath every week, or a Holy Convocation every seven days, during the civil year. There are 7 holy convocations for the commanded Feasts of Yahweh: 1st and7th day of Unleavened Bread, Day of Pentecost (Feast of Weeks), Day of Trumpets, Day of Atonement, 1st and 8th day of Tabernacles.


Those who follow a Lunar Moon Sabbath cycle, state that the New Moon Day is never on a Sabbath. Their sabbath count starts on the 8th day of the month. This leaves more than 7 days from the last sabbath, which would break the 7 day count for the week. There is no record of the sabbath day falling on a 29th day of the month in scripture. But in order to keep a 7 day cycle from the 8th day, the last sabbath would fall on the 29th day of every monthly count. If the sabbath day was counted from every moon, why wouldn’t Yahweh make this clear? Why is it that this sabbath count is not found in any scripture? There is no way you can keep the Feast of Pentecost, properly, using this type of sabbath count!  

However, there are records to show that the Hebrew people who considered the sabbath day a holy day and a time for celebration, did celebrate the 7th day sabbath as a double celebration, when it fell on a rosh chodesh (new moon day). We have seen that the New Moon day, called Rosh Chodesh, has a set, commanded, sabbath, Feast day on the 7th moon. And it is possible that there are many times when the New Moon day fell on a weekly sabbath day and still falls on a 7th day sabbath day, which would make that New Moon Day a Feast, Sabbath, New Moon Day. In 2012, the New moon day fell on a sabbath in March, April, July, and possibly December. This would make this a sabbath New moon day festival, or feast day! There are special torah readings for a shabbat, Rosh Chodesh.

If the Sabbath falls on the day of the new moon itself, it is called Shabbat Rosh Chodesh (שַׁבַּת ראשׁ חדֶשׁ) and an additional Torah reading (i.e., Num. 28:9-15) and Haftarah portion (i.e., Isa. 66:1-24) are recited during services. The additional Torah reading describes the special Rosh Chodesh offerings given at the Tabernacle: "At the beginnings of your months, you shall offer a burnt offering to Yahweh" (Num. 28:11). The Haftarah portion -- the last chapter of the Book of Isaiah (Isaiah 66) -- foretells of a great pilgrimage to Jerusalem after the End of Days, when Yahshua will be reigning upon the earth as Israel's Savior and Messiah: "From new moon to new moon, and from Sabbath to Sabbath, all flesh shall come to worship before me, declares Yahweh" (Isa. 66:23).

Reading from Maimonides Treatise on the New Moon Sanctification, Chapter 3, Paragraph 2, and 3, we find:

Witnesses who observed the New Moon were obliged to go to court and testify, even on a Sabbath; for is is said, “which you shall proclaim in the appointed season.” (Lev. 23:4) and wherever the term appointed season is used in connection with a commandment, this commandment takes precedent over the laws of the Sabbath. Accordingly, they were allowed to violate the Sabbath only on account of the month of Nisan and Tishri, for the observance of the festivals (in proper season) depends only upon these two months. At the time, however, when the sanctuary was still standing, violation of the Sabbath was permissible on account of all of the months, because of the Musaph offering of each New Moon Day, which offering took precedence over the laws of the Sabbath.

Even as the witnesses who observed the new moon were permitted to violate the Sabbath, so also the witnesses who accompanied them to certify their trustworthiness before the court were permitted to profane the sabbath whenever the observing witnesses were not known to the court. And even if there was only one witness to introduce them to the court, he was allowed to accompany them and violate the sabbath on account of the possibility that another witness might be found who would join him to form a pair.

Hebrew history has shown that the 7th day Sabbath could be violated to verify the New Moon Day, showing that the New Moon Day, could and did, fall on a 7th day Sabbath! This is contrary to Lunar Sabbath theory, which states that the 1st day of the month is not a weekly sabbath, but is treated like a sabbath! The New Moon Day was treated in respect like a sabbath, when it did fall on a weekly 7th day Sabbath, it was a special Shabbat Feast New Moon Day! I have been told by some lunar sabbath followers, that these historical records are not accurate and are distorted by historians! However, if they were, why? Today, the Jewish people do not set their sacred year according to the sighting of the New Moon Crescent sighting, so why would this important event have to be written wrong, when they do not even follow it according to their own historical records!


In the book of Yeremyah we find where the prophet is telling the people of Yahweh’s future restoration of His people back to His Covenant. In the verses leading up to verse 35, we find that Yahweh will place His law into our hearts and minds. There are ordinances in Yahweh’s laws that are forever. We read about the ordinance of the sun, moon, and stars, the greater and lesser lights. These lights are there to shine upon mankind, they remind us of the light of Yahweh, who is light. Their ordinance concerning their light is there to mark days, seasons, and it is their light which is of importance, not their darkness!

Isayah 60:20Thy sun shall no more go down; neither shall thy moon withdraw itself: for Yahweh shall be thine everlasting light, and the days of thy mourning shall be ended.”

Isayah 13:9,10 “Behold, the day of Yahweh comes, cruel both with wrath and fierce anger, to lay the land desolate: and he shall destroy the sinners thereof out of it. For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine.”

The importance of these luminary creations is their light! It is their light which is their main job within their creation! The emphasis is placed upon the light, which is necessary for life on earth, but also determines our days, months, and years! We found in Genesis One, that they were created as luminaries to be greater and lesser lights! There is no reference to any darkness of the moon being a time to set the feasts or any of the sacred festivals, to Yahweh’s people. In fact, to the contrary, darkness of the sun or moon, portrays destruction, gloom, and despair to the sinner and those who break the laws of Yahweh! The importance of the ordinance of the light of the luminaries, is revealed by Yeremyah as revealed to us, that if the ordinance of their light is ever diminished or departs, then the seed of Israel shall also depart from being a nation before Yahweh, forever!

Yeremyah 31:36If those ordinances depart from before me, says Yahweh, then the seed of Israel also shall cease from being a nation before me for ever!”

What ordinances?

Yeremyah 31:35 “Thus saith Yahweh, which giveth the sun for a light by day, [and] the ordinances 2708 of the moon 3394 and of the stars 3556 for a light 216 by night 3915, which divideth 7280 the sea when the waves thereof roar; Yahweh of hosts [is] his name.”

Please notice that the importance of the ordinance of the moon, is it’s light! This is verified by the historical records which clearly show that the Hebrews viewed a crescent moon (small sliver of light) to set the new moon day and the count to the next moon!

The word ordinances is #H2708 which means: statute, ordinance. That which is established or defined!

We have seen from Genesis 1:14-16, that the moon was established as the lesser light! Nothing about the sun, moon, or stars, darkness is important or of any significance to the Hebrew people to set the Feast Days.

CHAPTER 10 “Numerical Symbolism and Other Scriptures Worth Examining


One more interesting point about the 30/31 day count, in which the New Moon was observed and set for the people of Yahweh, is the Hebrew symbolism with the numbers that surround the count of the New Moon Observance. Number in Scripture by E.W. Bullinger, p. 265 we find the following information about the numbers 29-31!

The interesting thing to note about the numerical values is that:

  • 29th day: Start the observance of the new moon after 29 days from last new moon: 20=expectation; 9=judgment then;
  • 30th day: Set-up of watchman to look for new moon: 3X10 denotes in a higher degree the perfection of Divine order, as marking the right moment.  If no new moon sighting then;
  • 31st day: A new moon sighting: The Hebrew expression of this is אל the name of God!

The Number 7 in the Scriptures which would add credence to the seven day work/rest week: Dr. Ivan Panin’s work

Ivan Nikolayevitsh Panin (12 December 1855 – 30 October 1942) was a Russian emigrant to the United States who achieved fame for claiming to have discovered numeric patterns in the text of the Hebrew and Greek Bible and for his published work based on his subsequent research.

In 1890, Panin claimed to have discovered numerical patterns in the Hebrew text of the Psalms, and soon afterwards in the Greek text of the New Testament. In 1899 Panin sent a letter to the New York Sun challenging his audience to disprove his thesis that the numerical structure of scripture showed its divine origin. Thereafter, until his death in 1942, he devoted over 50 years of his life to painstakingly exploring the numerical structure of the Scriptures, generating over 43,000 hand-penned pages of analysis. A sampling of his discoveries was published, and is still being published today.

Dr. Panin discovered a structure called “heptadic.” Simply stated it is this: genuine Scripture, both Hebrew and Greek, where the numbers equivalent with the letters are added up properly, at some point: word, sentence, paragraph, or chapter, will always be divisible by the number seven! And, beyond this, utilization of "place numbers" determines punctuation as well as proper chronology of the various books. This mathematical phenomena occurs and re-occurs only in Holy Scripture and thus rules out all that is spurious.

For instance, the "Apocrypha", the fourteen books written during the 400 year "inter-testament" period between Malachi of the Old Testament and Matthew of the New, have no numerics whatsoever and are thereby revealed as being merely of man. Numerous Greek classical writings have also been checked with no evidence of Bible numerics found. Thus Dr. Panin determined that Scripture and only Scripture has this numeric "signature of Divinity" within it.

To demonstrate the validity of Bible Numerics, to illustrate its worth where textual matters are concerned, and to whet the readers appetite for a more thorough study of this fascinating subject, we offer the following excerpts from selected publications:

"Below are the Hebrew words of the very first verse in the Bible. The words are taken from their line position and placed in a column so that the "numeric value" of each word may be more easily shown. (The actual Hebrew characters are shown in the original)


1. In the beginning

1. Created

1. God

1. (An indefinite article which is not translatable)

1. The heavens

1. And (with indefinite article)

1. The earth

There are three important nouns in this first verse God, heaven, and earth. The numeric values of these three nouns are 86, 395, 296, respectively. When these three numeric values are added, the total value [777] is found to be a number which divides perfectly by 7 a number which is a multiple of 7, which is 111 7 s. In God's thinking, this Triple Intensification of His perfect number, 7, is the strongest possible manner of speaking.

Is it not strange that the numeric value of these words is a value which divides perfectly by seven a value which is an exact multiple of seven? Notice that the numeric value of the words is not 776 or 778, but exactly 777. If the numeric value were 776 or 778 it would not divide evenly by 7.

Here the number seven occurs in a strange manner beneath the surface, beyond the view of those who merely  read the words or surface of the Hebrew text. It is mysteriously hidden in the numeric value of the three words and is passed by unnoticed unless it is discovered by special investigation and special counting.

Each numerical  fact or  seven discovered in the structure of the text is called a feature a  numeric feature. This, then, is feature one. It is repeated below to place it in a list with other numeric features that have been discovered beneath the surface of the first verse in the Old Testament.

FEATURE ONE: The numeric value of the three important Hebrew nouns,  God, heaven,  earth, is exactly 777 or 111 7’s.

FEATURE TWO: It is strange to note that the numeric value of the verb in the first verse of Genesis is also a number which divides perfectly by 7 a number which is an exact multiple of 7. The numeric value of the Hebrew verb ‘created’ is exactly 203 or 29 7’s.

FEATURE THREE: Strange to say, the numeric value of the first, middle, and last Hebrew letters in this first verse is also a number which divides evenly by 7. The numeric value of these three letters is exactly 133 or 19 7’s.

FEATURE FOUR: The numeric value of the first and last letters of all of the seven Hebrew words in this verse is also a number which divides perfectly by 7. Their numeric value is exactly 1393 or 199-7’s (Notice the numeric value is not 1392 or 1394 but 1393, always a number which is an exact multiple of 7)

FEATURE FIVE: The number 1393, which is the numeric value of the first and last Hebrew letters of all the seven words, divides in the following manner. The numeric value of the first and last letters of the first word and the last word is a number which divides evenly by 7. Their numeric value is exactly 497 or 71-7’s. The numeric value of the first and last letters of the words remaining between the first and last words also divides perfectly by 7. Their numeric value is 896 or 128-7’s. (497 plus 896 equals 1393)
FEATURE SIX: The Hebrew participle  ETH which is not translatable into English, occurs twice in the sentence of seven words. The article  the also occurs twice. The numeric value of these two words which occur twice also divides by 7. Their numeric value is exactly 406 or 58- 7’s.

FEATURE SEVEN: The last letters of the first and last words have a numeric value of exactly 490 or 70-7’s. These numeric facts or sevens are, indeed, beyond the view of mere  readers of the Hebrew text. They are truly mysteriously hidden beneath the surface and can be discovered only by special searching and calculations. The above features were discovered in the numeric values of the Hebrew letters and words. However, the number seven is also concealed in various other ways in the structure of this first Bible verse. Examples are given below.

FEATURE EIGHT: It is indeed strange to note that the number of Hebrew words in this verse is not 6, not 8, be exactly 7.

FEATURE NINE: The total number of Hebrew letters in these seven words also divides perfectly by seven is an exact multiple of 7. The number of letters is exactly 28 or 4-7’s.

FEATURE TEN: The first three of these seven Hebrew words contain the subject and predicate of the sentence. These three words are translated In the beginning God created. The number of actual letters in these first three Hebrew words is exactly 14 or 2-7’s.
The last four of these seven words contain the object of the sentence. These fours words are translated  the heavens and the earth. The number of letters in these last four Hebrew words is 14 or 2-7’s.

FEATURE ELEVEN: These last four Hebrew words consist of two objects. The first is the heavens, and the second is and the earth. The number of letters in the first object is exactly 7. The number of letters in the second object in the Hebrew is 7.

FEATURE TWELVE: The three leading words in this verse of seven words are  God the subject and  heavens and  earth the objects. The number of letters in these three Hebrew words is exactly 14 or 2-7’s. The number of letters in the other four words of the verse is 14 or 2-7’s.

FEATURE THIRTEEN: The shortest word is in the middle. The number of letters in this word and the word to its left is exactly 7.

FEATURE FOURTEEN: The number of letters in the middle word and the word to its right is exactly 7. These sevens these numeric features or facts are strangely hidden beneath the surface. They are truly beyond the view of ordinary readers of the Hebrew text and are discovered only by special investigation and counting.

The above are only a few examples of the many amazing numeric facts which have been discovered in the structure of this first verse of only seven Hebrew words. Literally dozens of other phenomenal numeric features strangely underlie the structure of this verse & .." ("Mathematics Prove Holy Scriptures", Karl Sabiers, reprinted 1969, pp.21-27)

While I place no religious significance of worship to Yahweh, to numbers and their meanings, I thought that this would be interesting reading and noteworthy for this study, to show insight into numerical/scriptural symbolism and their parallels, by those who study biblical symbolical meanings and mathematical formulations to prove scripture to be real and true. Just food for thought when looking at the time schedule the Hebrew utilized for the New Moon observance. Also to the fact that the continuous 7 day sabbath cycle is never interrupted by any luminary. It is a set 7 day continuous weekly cycle.


There seems to be endless discussion on the facts pertaining to the new moon day and its significance in scripture. Lets look at some scriptures that are worthy of examination. There is some scriptures that seem to indicated that the New Moon Day is a Sabbath day, because it is mentioned in the same sentence or verse with the sabbath day. Let’s examine some of the discrepancies and see if we can clear up any misunderstandings.

In the book of Nehemyah, we find that the Aaronic Priests had vowed to keep the Laws of Yahweh and uphold the commandments. We are shown that they would not allow the buying and selling of grains or any merchandise on the Sabbath day!

Nehemyah 10:31-33 "When the neighboring peoples bring merchandise or grain to sell on the Sabbath, we will not buy from them on the Sabbath or on any holy day. Every seventh year we will forgo working the land and will cancel all debts, for the bread set out on the table; for the regular grain offerings and burnt offerings; for the offerings on the Sabbaths, New Moon festivals and appointed feasts; for the holy offerings; for sin offerings to make atonement for Israel; and for all the duties of the house of our Yahweh, for the bread set out on the table; for the regular grain offerings and burnt offerings; for the offerings on the Sabbaths, New Moon festivals and appointed feasts; for the holy offerings; for sin offerings to make atonement for Israel; and for all the duties of the house of our God.

We cannot find in the holy scriptures, any command by Yahweh, to rest on the New Moon Day, other than the Feast of Trumpets. However, we have read that the Ancient Hebrews had made certain New Moon Days (especially the 1st and 7th month) a day of celebration and rest from work according to the custom of the New Moon Festival! This was a custom, which became a statute, but was never a commandment from Yahweh! Reading from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia--NEW MOON, we find:

Notice this information says that the watchmen were not sent out in the five months between the moons when the sacred feasts were set! The Karaites kept the observation of seeing the crescent moon, according to ancient customs! Looking further we see more historical insight:

Notice also that the Law given to Mosheh did not institute this festival! While there is nothing wrong with celebrating a New Moon day every new month, if the believer so chooses, you must also keep in mind that the New Moon crescent, is nothing more than a beacon to calculate each month! We must be careful to keep the sighting of the new moon as nothing more than just a timepiece to set the beginning of the lunar month, for the Feast Cycle! In society it is important to calculate and keep up with time! The sighting of the lunar month during the year, is no more special (other than the two feast months 1st and 7th moon) than using a gregorian calendar is special. We keep time by seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, and years. This is part of every culture from every nation! We see history records that the New Moon Day that was special to Yahweh and His people is the, Feast of Trumpets. We also have seen that the 1st New Moon of Abib is important because it sets the appointed sacred Feasts in their season!

The Ancient Hebrews celebrated the New Moon Day much like how we celebrate holidays in America. We have labor day, memorial day, mothers day, fathers day, veterans day, etc... These are considered holiday customs where the nation as a whole celebrates certain events in recognition of a national holiday.

The New Moon Day had become a national holiday for the Israelites, not because of the command of Yahweh, but because from ancient customs that they held, to separate themselves from the other nations who held the worship of the moon as a primary form of worship for their people.

The seasons regulated the months, as the month of Abib, the 1st month of the year was that of “ears of grain,” which led to the Feast of Tabernacles in the 7th month, celebrating the ingathering of the autumnal fruits, ending the sacred year of Yahweh’s 7 month count. The  year was regulated by the months which was usually 12, but sometimes 13 months.  


There are scriptures that seem to indicated that the new moon is a sabbath, because it is mentioned along with the sabbath as a day of importance to worship and offer sacrifices to Yahweh! Isayah is one of these scriptures that we will take a look at.

Isayah 66:23From one New Moon to another and from one Sabbath to another, all mankind will come and bow down before me," says Yahweh.

Barnes Notes on the Bible
And it shall come to pass - As the prophet closes the book and winds up his whole prophecy, he directs the attention to that future period which had occupied so much of his attention in vision, when the whole world should be acquainted with the true religion, and all nations should worship Yahweh. Of such a book there could be no more appropriate close; and such a contemplation especially became the last prophetic moments of the 'evangelical prophet' Isaiah.

From one new moon to another - Margin, 'New moon to his new moon.' The Hebrew literally is, 'As often as the month cometh in its month;' that is, in its time, every month, every new moon (Gesenius, Lexicon, on the word מדי midēy). The Hebrews held a festival on the return of each month, or at every new moon (see the notes at Isaiah 1:14). A similar prophecy occurs in Zechariah 14:16 : 'And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the nations which came up against Jerusalem, shall even go up from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles.' In regard to the meaning of this, it is evident that it cannot be taken literally. In the nature of things it would be impossible for all nations to go literally before Yahweh in Jerusalem once a month, or once a year, to worship. It must then be meant that at periodical seasons, all the human family would worship Yahweh. The festivals of the new moon, the feast of tabernacles, and the sabbaths, were the set time among the Hebrews for the worship of God; and the idea is, that on set times, or at regularly recurring intervals, the worship of God would yet be celebrated in all lands. I see no evidence, therefore, that this means that there should be established on the earth the habit of meeting for prayer, or for the worship of God once a month - anymore than the passage above quoted from Zechariah proves that a feast like that of tabernacles would be celebrated once a year. But the idea is clear, that the time would come when Yahweh would be worshipped regularly and periodically everywhere; that in all nations his worship would be established in a manner similar in some respects to that which prevailed among his people in ancient times.

Isayah 1:14Your New Moon festivals and your appointed feasts my soul hates. They have become a burden to me; I am weary of bearing them.”

Barnes Notes on the Bible
Your appointed feasts - That is, your assemblies convened on regular set times - מועד mô‛êd, from יעד yâ‛ad, to fix, to appoint. Hengstenberg (Chris. iii. p. 87) has shown that this word (מועדים mô‛ĕdı̂ym) is applied in the Scriptures only to the sabbath, passover, pentecost, day of atonement, and feast of tabernacles. Prof. Alexander, in loc. It is applied to those festivals, because they were fixed by law to certain periods of the year. This verse is a very impressive repetition of the former, as if the soul was full of the subject, and disposed to dwell upon it.

Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon, GESENIUS, BDB, translated by Edward Robinson, page 417, defining the word, ‘appointed feasts’, we find this agreeing with Barnes Notations on the bible:

We can see that not every new moon day is part of the moed, or appointed feasts, but they do set the sacred seasons of the Feasts! They were New moon festivals, but other than Feast of Trumpets, they were not an appointed sabbath, or holy convocation, unless the new moon fell on a 7th day sabbath. There are numerous scriptures that mention the new moon, and yet none tell us to set the sabbath by them or that any New Moons are Feasts, other than the Feast of Trumpets, or a 7th day sabbath new moon.

15th day of the 1st Month of Abib

If the 15th of every month was a sabbath day, then why would Yahweh allow food to be cooked on the 15th of Abib? We are shown this to be like a sabbath day, but it is not a 7th day sabbath day of rest, where no food could be gathered or cooked!

Exodus 16:22,23 "And it came to pass, that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for one man... And he (Moses) said unto them, This is that which the LORD hath said, Tomorrow is the rest of the holy Sabbath unto Yahweh: bake that which ye will bake today (on the sixth day), and seethe that ye will seethe and that which remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning."

Exodus 35:2,3 "Six days shall work be done, but on the Seventh day there shall be to you an holy day, a Sabbath of rest to Yahweh: whosoever doeth work therein shall be put to death. Ye shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations upon the Sabbath day.”

But, while it was plainly prohibited to cook upon the 7th day Sabbath, it was Biblically acceptable to prepare food on the 15th of Abib, which is the first day of Unleavened Bread - also known as an "annual Sabbath." This is stated in:

Exodus 12:15,16  "Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel. And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you."

The 7th day Sabbath is also calculated differently than the annual Feast Sabbaths. This distinction is given in Leviticus 23.

Leviticus 23:1-4 "And the Yahweh spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts of Yahweh, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are My Feasts. Six days shall work be done: but the Seventh day is the Sabbath of rest, an holy convocation; ye shall do no work therein: it is the Sabbath of the Yahweh in all your dwellings..."

After listing the 7th day Sabbath as the first of Yahweh's "Feasts," there is a break in the thought before the annual Feast Sabbaths are listed, showing a distinction between how they are calculated and set. The scripture continues to say, These are the feasts of Yahweh, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons." Also notice that the seven day cycle is shown for the sabbath day of rest, and there is no mention of it being set by the lunar moon cycle!

NUMBERS 10:11,12,33

In Numbers the 10th chapter we see an example of the children of Israel traveling from one location to another. History does not record them breaking or setting up camp on the sabbath day. If according to the Lunar sabbath, the 22nd day being a sabbath day is correct, then they would have violated the sabbath by traveling on this day. For over 2 million people, this would be laborious work.

Numbers 10:11,12, 33 “And it came to pass on the 20th day of the 2nd month, in the 2nd year, that the cloud ws taken up from off the tabernacle of the testimony. And the children of Israel took their journeys out of the wilderness of Sinai; and the cloud rested in the wilderness of Paran. And they departed from the mount of Yahweh 3 days journey: and the ark of the covenant of Yahweh went before them in the 3 days journey, to search out a resting place for them.”

We can see that they traveled from the 20th day, three days journey, which means they stopped on the 23rd day of that moon. This would have made them traveling on the sabbath if the 22nd day, of that 2nd moon, was a sabbath. However, we do not see any mention of a Sabbath day, but we do see that they stopped on the 3rd day of traveling to a place of rest!


Points to consider in this study, that I have found to be true through biblical and historical records:

  • The sabbath day was always on a 7 day continuous cycle, based on the greater/lesser light which counted the days, (evening to evening), not lunar month a 30 day cycle.
  • The New Moon Day was the first day of the month (usually sighted on the 30th day, if not then it was an embolismic moon, or a full moon), but the count for each month was  set by the crescent observation of the witnesses who appeared before the High Court.
  • The Sacred year was a total of 7 months. The 1st month and the 7th month new moon day, were set by the Sanhedrin High Court to set the Sacred Feast Cycle for its beginning and the end of the sacred year for the Feasts of Yahweh.
  • The New Moon Day was declared and sanctified, after the crescent moon was seen at its proper time, by credible witnesses who testified before the High Court.
  • The count for the new moon started on the day it is sighted. So if you see it on the 30th day (old month), also the 1st day, (new month) then the next morning would be day 2, in your count to the next new/full moon. (*Still under investigation by author!)
  • The Jewish people today while following the Hillel II calendar, which may be off from time to time, because they are not counting from the observance of the crescent new moon, believe that without the Sanhedrin High Court, they are not obligated to look for the New Moon Crescent. While this may seem wrong to many sacred name Torah observers, they are following traditions that they hold in high regard by the sages. We can always remember what Yahshua said in Mattithyah (Matthew) 23:2,3 "The teachers of the law and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat. So you must obey them and do everything they tell you. But do not do what they do, for they do not practice what they preach.”  Therefore, it is not the intention of this study to question anyone’s belief system or faith, but to point out the differences.
  • The times, seasons, and year are set by the greater and lesser lights. The moon (the lesser light) sets the month, year, and Feast Circuit. The sun sets the days and weeks. (the greater light)

There are several points that the Lunar Dark New Moon studies I have read which seem to avoid or can’t explain from biblical or historical accounts the following:

  • How to set the Feast of Weeks by a 7 week, continuous, Sabbath count (impossible to do with a lunar sabbath count, maybe that is why it is avoided or confusing.)
  • Can’t provide any scripture that states that the 8th, 15th, 22nd and 29th day are 7th day Sabbath days, I am not referring to the ones listed in Leviticus 23rd chapter, which are sabbath (shabbathown) observances, but not 7th day weekly, sabbaths (Shabbath), unless when they fall on a weekly Sabbath day in a particular year.
  • They ignore Historical records about the Ancient Hebrew New Moon crescent sightings, stating that history is written wrong or from a slanted viewpoint. Yet today, the Jewish people don’t follow the Ancient way of sighting the crescent moon, so why would they consider all of history concerning the New Moon Day, a conspiracy, when the Jewish people don’t even follow ancient, Crescent moon sighting?
  • No logical explanation of the variations in the days (longer than a 7 day week) between the 29th day old month, and the 8th day new month.
  • Lack of proper Hebrew Lexicon definitions to explain their interpretations, or using elementary books such as a Strong’s Concordance to define properly Hebrew words, considering Strong’s was never written to be a thorough Hebrew Dictionary.
  • Most studies to back up the Lunar Dark Moon Sabbath theory are Christians, or former Christians. Not trying to offend any Christians, the point is NO respected Hebrew scholars are on board this doctrinal teaching because it’s concept is against Hebrew language, grammar, linguistics and historical facts. No reliable historical records with proven references, to indicate that the Hebrew people had a Lunar, Monthly Sabbath count, and then changed the count, to a successive weekly sabbath count!

I didn’t attempt to delve into every controversy on this subject, but attempted to address the most pressing points, and approached this study from a biblical, and historical origin. I did try to keep this report under 70 pages, which is a long study, but yet, hopefully will not bore those who are on a serious pursuit of truth. If there is anything in this study that is not based on truth, then I encourage any corrections, debate, and growth in the body of Messiah, the Bayith Yahweh, so that we may all come into unity of the message of Yahweh, and Yahshua, who was in unity with Yahweh.

EXAMPLE OF A LUNAR CALENDAR WITH COUNT FROM ONE NEW MOON TO ANOTHER (this is a count that is under investigation by the author)









2 3
4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15  28th day
16  29th day 17  30th day Crescent Moon tonight 1st day of new moon  FOT 18   2nd day  Feast of Trumpets a sabbath day 19    3rd day 20  4th day 21   5th day 22   6th day
23   7th day 24   8th day 25  9th day  at evening is
Day of Atonement
26   10th day   Day of Atonement 27   11th day 28   12 day 29   13th day
30   14th day At evening is Feast of Tabernacles









1    15th day  1st day FOT 2    16th day  2nd day FOT 3    17th day  3rd day FOT 4    18th day  4th day FOT 5    19 day  5th day FOT 6    20th day  6th day FOT
7    21st day  7th day FOT 8   22nd day  8th day  Last Great Day 9   23rd day 10    24th day 11    25th day 12   26th day 13   27th day
14    28th day 15   29th day   16   30th day  Look tonight for crescent moon! If you see it. New Moon  1st day 17  If not seen this is  31 day moon and 1st day of count to next moon cycle 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
28 29 30 31

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